The wide range of Special educational needs (SEN) , meaning schools have to be adaptable and diverse to cater for the wide range of additional needs. This essay will briefly describe the range of SEN and outline how historical findings, government strategies and different psychological theories have changed the way SEN are approached.
Types of SEN:
‘Autism was first described by the American Leo Kanner in 1943’ (Hodder Arnold., 2002.,) Students with Autism are known to suffer from social problems and find it hard to understand different social situations so would need consistency and routine in their lives along with extensive group exercises.
Asperger 's Syndrome is another form of autism and students with the syndrome will have many of the symptoms of those with autism however they are usually better at holding conversation and are not quite as detached from the world. As it is an Impairment of social skills so those with the syndrome would need constant attention and social communication.
ADD (attention Deficit Disorder) and ADHD (Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) are also very common, although children with ADHD or ADD are easily distracted and can be very hyper ADHD has no relation to intelligence. (NHS Choices) Children with ADHD/ADD need structure and clear communication, along with rewards and consequences for their behaviour to help overcome the symptoms.
Global developmental affects 1% to 3% of children (www.neurology.org) this condition is a delay in two or more of the learning processes such as speech or social interaction.
There are also many types of physical SEN including conditions such as Cerebral palsy which affects the unconscious ability to contract or relax muscle (NHS Choices).
Another very common SEN is Down syndrome which is a disorder ‘in which a person has an extra chromosome 21’ (Hodder Arnold.,
References: Book ‘in which a person has an extra chromosome 21’ (Hodder Arnold., 2002., An Introduction to Children With Special Needs.) Hodder Arnold., 2002., An Introduction to Children With Special Needs, p62 Website http://www.guardian.co.uk/education/2008/feb/12/schools.uk3 Book Hodder Arnold., 2002., An Introduction to Children With Special Needs. Book Joy Pollock, Elisabeth Waller and Rody Pollitt., 2004., Day to Day Dyslexia in the Classroom Second Edition.