How Is Vitamin C Manufactured

Topics: Flavor, Food preservation, Vitamin C Pages: 6 (1901 words) Published: December 22, 2014
How is Vitamin C manufactured?
Ascorbic Acid
Also known as: l-ascorbic acid, vitamin C, ascorbate
A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.

The synthesis of ascorbic acid was achieved by Reichstein in 1933, followed by industrial production of ascorbic acid two years later by Roche. Today, vitamin C identical to that occurring in nature is produced on a very large industrial scale. The ultimate raw material for the production of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is corn or wheat. This is converted via starch to glucose by specialist companies, and then to sorbitol. The two industrial methods used to produce vitamin C synthetically employ the sugar glucose. The Reichstein process was developed in tthe early 1930s and uses a short fermentation process, followed by chemical processing: Glucose > Sorbitol + fermentation > Sorbose > Diacetone-Sorbose > Keto-Gulonic acid > Keto-Gulonic acid methylester > Ascorbic acid.

An improved method using a two-step fermentation process was developed in China in the 1960s: Glucose > Sorbitol + fermentation > Sorbose + fermentation > Keto-Gluconic acid > ascorbic acid. Most vitamin C is currently produced in China using this method; there are only a couple of manufacturers outside of China producing vitamin C. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Other processes used in preserving meat ( 2. Curing Foods

Curing is the addition to meats of some combination of salt, sugar, nitrite and/or nitrate for the purposes of preservation, flavor and color. Some publications distinguish the use of salt alone as salting, corning or salt curingand reserve the word curing for the use of salt with nitrates/nitrites. The cure ingredients can be rubbed on to the food surface, mixed into foods dry (dry curing), or dissolved in water (brine, wet, or pickle curing). In the latter processes, the food is submerged in the brine until completely covered. With large cuts of meat, brine may also be injected into the muscle. The term pickle in curing has been used to mean any brine solution or a brine cure solution that has sugar added. 2.1. Salting / Corning

Salt inhibits microbial growth by plasmolysis. In other words, water is drawn out of the microbial cell by osmosis due to the higher concentration of salt outside the cell. A cell loses water until it reaches a state first where it cannot grow and cannot survive any longer. The concentration of salt outside of a microorganism needed to inhibit growth by plasmolysis depends on the genus and species of the microorganism. The growth of some bacteria is inhibited by salt concentrations as low as 3%, e.g., Salmonella, whereas other types are able to survive in much higher salt concentrations, e.g., up to 20% salt for Staphylococcus or up to 12% salt for Listeria monocytogenes (Table 5.3.). Fortunately the growth of many undesirable organisms normally found in cured meat and poultry products is inhibited at relatively low concentrations of salt (USDA FSIS 1997a). Salting can be accomplished by adding salt dry or in brine to meats. Dry salting, also called corning originated in Anglo-Saxon cultures. Meat was dry-cured with coarse "corns" or pellets of salt. Corned beef of Irish fame is made from a beef brisket, although any cut of meat can be corned. Salt brine curing involves the creation of brine containing salt, water and other ingredients such as sugar, erythorbate, or...
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