Indicative content Mark
The question is focused on the challenges mounted to Tsarist rule in the given period, and the extent to which divisions among opposition groups contributed to their failure. Answers may consider the four main strands of opposition, their internal divisions and their intolerance of each other. A tradition of revolutionary activity was established by the Populists and their appeal to the peasants, though they were weakened by the assassination of Alexander II and the repression established by Alexander III. The Social Revolutionaries tried to gain support among both peasants and townspeople, but were divided between anarchists and revolutionaries. The Social Democrats split into Bolsheviks and Mensheviks at the 1903 Congress, while the Liberals did not establish distinctive parties until after the 1905 Revolution. A simple description of some of the revolutionary parties will be marked within Levels 1 and 2, and progression will depend on the range and depth of relevant material. Responses at Level 3 will begin to address causation but may include significant descriptive or narrative material. At Level 4 candidates will offer reasonable range and depth of appropriate material and will address reasons for the failure of effective opposition to Tsardom, such as the role of the Okhrana, police and army. Those who can offer some evaluation of the failure of the reformers and revolutionaries, will access Level 5.
How far were divisions amongst opponents responsible for the survival of Tsarist rule, 1881 - 1905? Divisions of opposing groups of the Tsar were important to the survival of Tsarist Russia. However, other factors such as the church, the belief of the divine right, the army and the Okhrana were also effective in keeping the Tsar in a state of power. Firstly, the opposition groups of the Tsar were known as the Populists, the Liberals and the Marxists. Each group had its own ideas on what was needed for Russia and each group...
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