Title of Assignment:
A. How do traditional social culture and values impact on business culture in your country? B. Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of your own company culture focusing on leadership and employee behaviours, organisation structure and hr systems. Then draw up an action plan for improvement in one area.
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PART I: How do traditional social culture and values impact on business culture in your country? 1. DEFINITIONS
Culture is defined as a pattern of shared basic assumptions that was learned by a group as it solved its problems of external adaptation and internal integration, that has worked well enough to be considered valid and, therefore, to be taught to new members as the correct way you perceive, think, and feel in relation to those problems"(Schein, 2004). Organisational Culture may be defined as the workplace environment formulated from the interaction of the employees in the workplace. Organizational culture is defined by all of the life experiences, strengths, weaknesses, education, upbringing, and so forth of the employees. While executive leaders play a large role in defining organizational culture by their actions and leadership, all employees contribute to the organizational culture. (ABOUT.COM)
Values may be defined as important and enduring beliefs or ideals shared by the members of a culture about what is good or desirable and what is not. Values exert major influence on the behavior of an individual and serve as broad guidelines in all situations. (http://www.businessdictionary.com)
Organisational Values are therefore the beliefs and ideas about what kinds of goals members of an organisation should pursue and ideas about the appropriate kinds or standards of behaviour organisational members should use to achieve these goals. From organisational values develop organisational norms, guidelines, or expectations that prescribe appropriate kinds of behaviour by employees in particular situations and control the behaviour of organisational members towards one another (Hill, and Jones, 2001).
Putting these together In a nutshell, if culture is the common or shared system of behaviour of a group of people, values provide the reason for their actions and the filter through which the world is seen, evaluated and responded to and why one action or approach is preferred above another.
2. ELEMENTS OF ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE There are many facets of organisational culture and while one may see similarities between cultures in different organisations, there may not be what one may call a general standard for organisational culture. The specifics of each organisation’s culture are derived from its mission, strategy, history, environment,
industry, leadership and many other factors. This notwithstanding, there are identifiable elements of culture which can be distinguished in any organisation. Geert Hofstede’s four dimensions of organisational culture are briefly highlighted below and provide a handy reference for a discussion on the extent to which Ghana’s own culture and values define organisational culture within the country.
Dimensions of Organisational Culture (Hofstede, 1980)
Power distance - How much the less powerful members of institutions and organisations expect and accept that power is distributed unequally. In cultures with small power distance like Australia, Austria, Denmark, Ireland, Israel, New Zealand, people expect and accept power relations that are more consultative or democratic. People relate to one another more as equals regardless of formal positions. Subordinates are more comfortable with and demand the right to contribute to and critique the decisions of those in...
Bibliography: 1. Schein, E.H. (1985-2005) Organizational Culture and Leadership, 3rd Ed., Jossey-Bass ISBN 07879-7597-4 2. http://en.wikipedia.org 3. http://www.About.com 4. http://www.managementhelp.org 5. Hofstede, G. (1980) Culture 's Consequences: International Differences in Work Related Values, Beverly Hills, CA, Sage Publications 6. Charles W. L. Hill, and Gareth R. Jones, (2001) Strategic Management. Houghton Mifflin. 7. Deal T. E. and Kennedy, A. A. (1982) Corporate Cultures: The Rites and Rituals of Corporate Life, Harmondsworth, Penguin Books. 8. http://www.businessdictionary.com 9. Handy, C.B. (1985) Understanding Organizations, 3rd Edn, Harmondsworth, Penguin Books 10. http://family.jrank.org/pages/687/Gender-Interaction-between-Gender-Power.html">Gender Interaction Between Gender And Power 11. Abu, Katherine. "Separateness of Spouses: Conjugal Resources in an Ashanti Town." In Christine Oppong, ed., Female and Male in West Africa, 1983. 12. Apter, David. The Gold Coast in Transition, 1955. 13. Berry, LaVerle, ed. Ghana, a Country Study, 3rd ed., 1994. 14. Busia, K. A. The Position of the Chief in the Modern Political System of the Ashanti: A Study of the Influence of Contemporary Social Change on Ashanti Political Institutions, 1951. 15. http://www.everyculture.com/Ge-It/Ghana.html#ixzz1EiqqNKMP 16. http://www.mindmatters.com 17. http://family.jrank.org/pages/703/Ghana-Family-Structure-Family-Formation-FamilyLife.html#ixzz1F0AFw9gf 18. http://www.standardchartered.com
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