How Do Our Notions of Race Affect to Our Notions of Intelligence ?

Topics: Race, Intelligence, Caucasian race Pages: 5 (1325 words) Published: June 14, 2013
INFLUENCE  OF  OUR  NOTIONS  OF  RACE  TO  OUR  NOTIONS  OF  INTELLIGENCE

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                 How  do  our  no)ons  of  race  affect  our  no)ons  of  intelligence?                                    Dinislam  Karimov.  İstanbul  Şehir  University                                                                                     Research  of  influence  of  na)onal  and  racial  iden)ty  of  the  person  on  his  intelligence  is   hampered  by  the  circumctance  that  any  research  in  this  area  is  most  oCen  interpreted  in  the  spirit   of  chauvinism  and  nazism.  As  in  the  past,  and  in  this  century,  aGempts  were  made  to  scien)fically   jus)fy   the  differen)a)on   of   mankind  as  intelligent   and  lower   groups  according  to  the  na)onal   race.           Humankind,   by   certain   anthropological  features  was  subdivided   into   two:   intellectually   developed  and  having  insufficient  abili)es  to  cerebra)on.    A  shape  of  a  skull  and  especially   brain   volume   had   crucial   importance   at   classifica)on.   The   German   anatomist   and   anthropologist   J.F.Blumenbach,   who   put   firstly   the   basis   to   an   exact   method   of   researches  in   anthropology,   considered  a  shape  of  a  skull  of  representa)ves  of  the  Caucasian  (European)  race  as  a  normal  type   and   compared   to   it   skulls   of   representa)ves   of   other   races.   Recognizing   affinity   skulls   of   Representa)ves  races,  he  s)ll  considered  the  "center"  skull  Europoids  because  it  seemed  to  him   the   most   beau)ful,   composed   of   "harmoniously   developed   parts"   (Scientific classification of race. 2013. In Encyclopedia Britannica).                                      Without  rejec)ng  the  relatedness  of  all  races  at  the  base  of  the  skull,  however,  Blumenbach   suggested  the  existence  of  a  hierarchy  between  the  races  and  the  dominant  posi)on  assigned  the   representa)ves  of  the  Caucasian  race.   Skull  shape  of   representa)ves  non-­‐caucasian  races  were   characterized  by   a  specific   abnormality,  disharmony.   Place  of  different   races’  skull  shapes  in  the   hierarchy  depended  solely  on  the  more  or  less  resemblance  to  the  shape  of  skulls  Caucasians.            

INFLUENCE  OF  OUR  NOTIONS  OF  RACE  TO  OUR  NOTIONS  OF  INTELLIGENCE

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In  the  works  of  Blumenbach  there  is  no  argument  in  support  of  such  a  hierarchy.  Classifica)on  of   skull  shape  on  a  larger  or  smaller  degree  of  perfec)on  is  arbitrary,  not  scien)fic.                          Unlike  Blumenbach,  another  craniology  of  XIX  century   Morton,  based  on  the  classifica)on  of   mankind  put  the  size  of  the  brain.  In  numerous  studies,  he  found  that  the  brains  of  Caucasians  on   average   is  larger   than   the   brains  of   other   races.   The   smallest   size   of   the   brain,   according   to   Morton,  characterized  by  Negroid  peoples  at  a  very  low  level  of  development.                                   Negroids,  characterized  by  the  lowest  value  of  the  brain  are  treated  as  people  of  less  capable   of  mental  ac)vity.  Caucasians  also  had  the  largest  size  of  brain  treated  as  the  most   intellectually   giCed  among  other  races.  Mental  abili)es  were  put  in  direct  dependence  on  the  size  of  the  brain.   Most   experts  on  evolu)on  s)ll  claim   that   between   the  size  of   the  brain  and  intelligence  exists   direct   rela)onship,   but   this  dependence  is  not   absolute.   The  existence  of   such  a  rela)onship  is   indisputable,  but  we  can  not  ignore  the  determining  influence  of  other  factors.                                    In  general,  in  the  XIX  century,  it  was  found  that  the  weight...
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