How Did the Tsar Survive the 1905 Revolution?

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How did the Tsar survive the 1905 Revolution?
Introduction

Controversy surrounds whether or not the revolution was a "dress rehearsal" for the 1917 revolution or a missed opportunity for Tsar Nicholas II to consolidate a constitutional monarchy.
This dissertation will focus on the survival of the Tsar, as it is ultimately an open question whether he would have saved the monarchy. The dissertation will also reveal that in the Tsar 's heart was more in reaction than reform. This coursework will show that part of the key to the monarchy 's survival was the division of the opponents of Tsarism. It took World War I to cause a major breakdown in relations that left the monarchy open to further revolution through total war.
The 1905 revolution was the result of the Russo-Japanese war which broke out in 1904. The war saw military and naval defeats for the Russian forces. There were food shortages in cities and the Soviets (assemblies of workers and soldiers ' representatives) were formed in St. Petersburg and Moscow. The event which started the whole revolution in the Russian Empire was "Bloody Sunday"; the event of the massacre of armament workers by Cossacks in front of the Winter Palace at St. Petersburg. The leader, Father Gapon, wanted to present the Tsar a petition requesting an improvement of living conditions and more freedom of expression. Riots spread to Odessa, the Black Sea Port and to Moscow where the Soviets were formed and Trotsky became involved. The battleship Potemkin mutinied and tried to help the Odessa rebels. There was a film made by the director Eisenstein which implied that the 1905 rebellion gave the momentum to a new revolutionary movement. However, ultimately, the revolution of 1905 was suppressed in the short term.
Summer brought mutinies from both the navy and army. The loss against Japan at Port Arthur and defeat at Tsushima far from strengthened the position of the Tsar 's government, in fact had weakened it. Autumn saw the



Bibliography: Ascher, Abraham (1992) Second Edition: The Revolutions of 1905, Stanford University Press. Bushnell, Albert (1985) Mutiny amid Repression: Russian Soldiers in the Revolution of 1905, Indiana University Press. Evans, David and Jenkins, Jane, (2001) Years of Russia and the USSR, 1851-1992, Hodder and Stoughton Educational. Karpovich, Michael (1960) Imperial Russia, Holt, Rhinehart and Winston Inc. Lynch, Michael (2000) Reactions and Revolutions: Russia 1881-1924, Hodder and Stoughton. Lynch, Michael (2000) "The Russian Revolution: Russia 1881-1924", Hodder and Stoughton. Morris, Terry and Murphy, Derrick (2000)"Europe: 1870-1991" HarperCollins Educational Pipes, Richard (1990) The Russian Revolution 1899-1919, Alfred A. Knoph Inc., Pipes, Richard (1970) Struve: Liberal on the left, 1870-1905 Cambridge Massachusetts Press.

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