The old Peru was sustained in an economy based on agriculture as it was incumbent upon all pre-modern States. The displacement of this activity by mining during the colonial period and the later development of the cities with the Republic led to a redistribution of the population that took us from being a predominantly rural country prior to the 1950s to a country with urban population at the beginning of the 21st century.
In 2002, a 28.8 per cent of the population was rural and 72% urban. However, this distribution is very different between the regions. On the coast there are indices higher than 80% of urbanization, Lima has only 98%. In the sierra and selva has levels below 40 per cent as Cajamarca (28.1 per cent) and Huancavelica (30.4%).
Despite the typically urban like pollution, the overcrowding, violence, etc. problems, cities continue to attract residents of the field by being considered as a space where to develop. This wave of migration has been established mainly on the outskirts of cities, occupying land by force and remain marginal populations called "young people". The oldest have become over time districts organized an economic dynamics through industrial parks and the development of micro-enterprises.
In the field, the impoverishment of the agricultural sector has generated other types of problems such as shifting cultivation, activity in which entire hectares of Amazonian forest are burned to be transformed into farmland, which at the time they cease to be productive and they are left to deal with other forests.
The relationship between the city and the countryside has been mainly of superiority. Designations: "provincial", "serrano" "Indian" or "peasant" have strong connotations relating to poverty and ignorance. This not only happens in major cities or capitals, also occurs in small towns located in rural areas, where city dwellers are considered superior to the peasants. Despite the fact that 18% of the population speak quechua, especially rural, the improper pronunciation of the Spanish (the so-called "mote") is perceived to be synonymous with lack of education. There is also a racial discrimination, in some cases more obvious than others, to the Andean features (dark skin, sharp cheekbones, nose aquiline, etc.) being better considered people of skin or eyes.
In the cultural events you can see these urban affairs - rural. Many migrants from the Sierra and their descendants established for a long time in the cities continue keeping the dances and music of their peoples like the huayño. They are organized in clubs and associations and commemorative recreational activities to the patron or important events. Other typical urban expressions and such capital is "chicha music", a fusion of rhythms and tropical melodies with the traditional Andean, and the use of contemporary musical instruments as drums and electric guitar. It has also developed the "Andean music" or "American" where she played Andean folk music with new instruments creating new shades and styles. All these demonstrations convened multitudinous concerts promoted by the media.
However, stronger evidence of this relationship of superiority of the city to the countryside, occurred during the political violence of the 1980s and 90s decades. The neglect and indifference toward the Andean population was one of the main reasons why he initiated and developed the political violence. Thousands of peasants were between two fires: the subversive movements and the armed forces and were abused and their human rights were totally unknown. When the capital Lima received attacks streets just reacted to capture the main leaders of the subversive movements. The Commission on the truth and reconciliation in his report on this issue highlights the indifference of the urban population, especially the capital, to the social problems of the rural population as one of the main causes of the violence.
People's housing problem is a term more than one national problem that is more than the structural. Always has talked at the professional level and has dealt with people who have a to - do direct with the Affairs of the community with concerns for general problems of homelessness. They have included auto: the man in the street, politicians, economists, engineers, architects, doctors, journalists, priests, teachers, workers, all expressed in one direction or the other, because all have had something to say from his point of view. Build the hostel of the man.
Not much has been in recent times to the virtualizarse a growing awareness that the problem of the room and the general problem of the country are closely linked; but unfortunately this has not been expressed very loud or very clearly. With this awareness, have been wrong and concerned approaches that have been heard to loudly. In this way when the world thought and even the achievements in many countries are very forward and Peruvian thought is not to lag behind, in large sectors of opinion there is a darkness in the ideas that has prevented the country require a coherent policy of achievements and has led Governments to execute works of palliative for political ends and to dilate the real solutions.
false claim that threatens to become a dogma of faith. Says that assertion that "the housing crisis is problem number one in the country". And from such aberration it excites the popular masses have home ownership as the highest aspiration as the panacea for all ills and problems. It is forgotten or you wish to forget, the problem of food clothing, education, health, in any case, are prior to the home ownership (and which finally has little to nothing to do with the problem of the room, because the issue is not having a title of ownership of a house)(, but enjoy the service that it provides). It is forgotten or you wish to forget, that housing the family requires adequate economic capacity that guarantees, not only the conservation and proper use of the structure, but also the balanced satisfaction of other vital needs.
Other causes of the problem of housing that are often mentioned are only contributing to the lack of economic development and in any case they also as a result of this situation. Thus urban congestion, product migration, has its roots in the province and agricultural decline aggravated by the vegetative growth of the population; land speculation, stemming from their scarcity in relation to demographic pressure, the monopoly of urban building land and the lack of assurances and incentives for investment in other; the lack of specialized credit, as a result of a faulty guidance of credit due to the shortage of financial resources, its control by small financial groups, their control by small groups and the attraction of speculative operations stimulated by the primacy of foreign trade;
The insipiencia of the building caused by the lack of technological development, industry, the shortage of capital, mainly employed in speculative activities, and the reduced scale of construction operations in the urban construction.