International Journal of Hospitality Management 28 (2009) 328–337
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International Journal of Hospitality Management
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ijhosman
Hotel employees’ expectations of QWL: A qualitative study
Indira Kandasamy a,*, Sreekumar Ancheri b
Department of Management, Sarosh Institute of Hotel Administration, Mahaveer circle, Mangalore 575002, India Faculty of Management Studies, Goa University, Goa 403206, India
A R T I C L E I N F O
A B S T R A C T
Keywords: Quality of work life (QWL) expectation Hospitality industry Hotel employee
The hospitality industry needs to provide a good quality of work life (QWL) in order to attract and retain employees. There is yet to be a study that deﬁnes the ‘expected dimensions of QWL’ by the potential and present hotel employees. QWL being multifaceted and context-based, this researcher conducted a qualitative study in an attempt to identify QWL dimensions expected in the working environment of a hotel. 84 students and 64 employees from three hotel management institute and three hotel organization from Mangalore city in India participated through a purposeful sampling frame. Data were collected using interviews, focus group discussions and open-ended questionnaires, and analyzed in line with grounded theory method. The content analysis of the data yielded eight dimensions of QWL. Implications and limitations of this study along with areas for future research are discussed. ß 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
1. Introduction Studies have afﬁrmed the contribution of competent and loyal employees towards organizational proﬁts (Hinkin and Tracey, 2000). Apparently, no hotel can have excellent operations without excellent employees (Enz and Siguaw, 2000). Such inferences are suggestive of the fact that employees are the most signiﬁcant resource within the hospitality organization. But on the other hand, this industry is ﬁnding it difﬁcult to attract and retain their human resources. The industry is reeling under the crisis of high turnover (Mehra, 2006), adversely impacting the quality of products and services offered (Pizam and Thornburg, 2000) and also affecting revenue and proﬁts (Tracey and Hinkin, 2008). Additionally, the hospitality graduates have an aversion towards entering the hospitality industry (Kusluvan and Kusluvan, 2000), despite the time and effort invested in educating themselves for a career in the hotel industry. So far there has been little research on the emerging problem as to why so many graduates abandon a career in the hospitality industry (Teng, 2008), though some studies have noted that the hospitality graduates hold an unfavorable attitude towards working and making a career in this industry (Teng, 2008), and one of the reason attributed to this is the poor working condition perceived by them (Kang and Gould, 2002). Also, it has been found that students feel disappointed with the real work experience during the internship that negatively inﬂuences their intention to seek employment in this industry (Waryszak, 1999; Jenkins, 2001).
* Corresponding author. Tel.: +91 824 2245140; fax: +91 824 2246700. E-mail addresses: email@example.com (I. Kandasamy), firstname.lastname@example.org (S. Ancheri). 0278-4319/$ – see front matter ß 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.ijhm.2008.11.003
In the light of the foregoing concerns in the hotel industry, it is a challenge for the management to motivate employees to stay on the job, by ensuring measures at enhancing the working condition to counter turnover (Yu, 1999). Research ﬁnding has acknowledged the impact of improved quality of work life (QWL) on reduced turnover (Ference, 1982). Consequently, inducting quality then into the work lives of hospitality employees is essential and inevitable. Since employees have certain expectations when they join an organization (Woods, 1993), gaining individuals’...
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