Hospitality Management

Topics: Employment, Hotel, Hospitality industry Pages: 30 (10702 words) Published: August 12, 2013
International Journal of Hospitality Management 28 (2009) 328–337

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

International Journal of Hospitality Management
journal homepage:

Hotel employees’ expectations of QWL: A qualitative study
Indira Kandasamy a,*, Sreekumar Ancheri b
a b

Department of Management, Sarosh Institute of Hotel Administration, Mahaveer circle, Mangalore 575002, India Faculty of Management Studies, Goa University, Goa 403206, India



Keywords: Quality of work life (QWL) expectation Hospitality industry Hotel employee

The hospitality industry needs to provide a good quality of work life (QWL) in order to attract and retain employees. There is yet to be a study that defines the ‘expected dimensions of QWL’ by the potential and present hotel employees. QWL being multifaceted and context-based, this researcher conducted a qualitative study in an attempt to identify QWL dimensions expected in the working environment of a hotel. 84 students and 64 employees from three hotel management institute and three hotel organization from Mangalore city in India participated through a purposeful sampling frame. Data were collected using interviews, focus group discussions and open-ended questionnaires, and analyzed in line with grounded theory method. The content analysis of the data yielded eight dimensions of QWL. Implications and limitations of this study along with areas for future research are discussed. ß 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction Studies have affirmed the contribution of competent and loyal employees towards organizational profits (Hinkin and Tracey, 2000). Apparently, no hotel can have excellent operations without excellent employees (Enz and Siguaw, 2000). Such inferences are suggestive of the fact that employees are the most significant resource within the hospitality organization. But on the other hand, this industry is finding it difficult to attract and retain their human resources. The industry is reeling under the crisis of high turnover (Mehra, 2006), adversely impacting the quality of products and services offered (Pizam and Thornburg, 2000) and also affecting revenue and profits (Tracey and Hinkin, 2008). Additionally, the hospitality graduates have an aversion towards entering the hospitality industry (Kusluvan and Kusluvan, 2000), despite the time and effort invested in educating themselves for a career in the hotel industry. So far there has been little research on the emerging problem as to why so many graduates abandon a career in the hospitality industry (Teng, 2008), though some studies have noted that the hospitality graduates hold an unfavorable attitude towards working and making a career in this industry (Teng, 2008), and one of the reason attributed to this is the poor working condition perceived by them (Kang and Gould, 2002). Also, it has been found that students feel disappointed with the real work experience during the internship that negatively influences their intention to seek employment in this industry (Waryszak, 1999; Jenkins, 2001).

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +91 824 2245140; fax: +91 824 2246700. E-mail addresses: (I. Kandasamy), (S. Ancheri). 0278-4319/$ – see front matter ß 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.ijhm.2008.11.003

In the light of the foregoing concerns in the hotel industry, it is a challenge for the management to motivate employees to stay on the job, by ensuring measures at enhancing the working condition to counter turnover (Yu, 1999). Research finding has acknowledged the impact of improved quality of work life (QWL) on reduced turnover (Ference, 1982). Consequently, inducting quality then into the work lives of hospitality employees is essential and inevitable. Since employees have certain expectations when they join an organization (Woods, 1993), gaining individuals’...

References: Axelsson, J.R.C., 2000. Quality and Ergonomics—towards successful integration. Doctorial Thesis. Dissertation No. 616, Quality and Human Systems Engineer¨ ¨ ing, Linkoping University, Linkoping. Bryman, A., 1989. Research Methods and Organization Studies. Routledge, London. Bryman, A., Bell, E., 2003. Business Research Methods. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
I. Kandasamy, S. Ancheri / International Journal of Hospitality Management 28 (2009) 328–337 Koys, D.J., 2001. The effects of employee satisfaction, organizational citizenship behavior, and turnover on organizational effectiveness: a unit-level, longitudinal study. Personnel Psychology 54 (1), 101–114. Kruger, P., Brazil, K., Lohfeld, L., Edward, H.G., Lewis, D., Tjam, E., 2002. Organization specific predictors of job satisfaction—findings from a Canadian multi-site quality of work life cross-sectional Survey. BMC Health Services Research 2 (6). Kusluvan, S., Kusluvan, Z., 2000. Perceptions and attitudes of undergraduate tourism students towards working in the tourism industry in Turkey. Tourism Management 21 (3), 251–269. Lau, R.S.M., Bruce, E.M., 1998. A win-win paradigm for quality of work life and business performance. Human Resource Development Quarterly 9 (3), 211–226. Lawler III, E.E., 2005. Creating high performance organizations. Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources 43 (1), 10–17. Levine, M.F., Taylor, J.C., Davis, L.E., 1984. Defining quality of working life. Human Relations 37 (1), 81–104. Lewis, D., Brazil, K., Krueger, P., Lohfeld, L., Tjam, E., 2001. Extrinsic and intrinsic determinant of quality of work life. Leadership in Health Services 14 (2), 9–15. Lincoln, Y., Guba, E., 1985. Naturalistic Enquiry. Sage, London. Loscocco, K.A., Roschelle, A.R., 1991. Influences on the quality of work and non-work life: two decades in review. Journal of Vocational Behavior 39 (2), 182–225. Louis, K.S., Smith, B., 1990. Teacher working conditions. In: Reyes, P. (Ed.), Teachers and their Workplace: Commitment, Performance and Productivity. Sage publication, Newbury Park, CA, pp. 23–47. Macdonald, D., 1999. The ‘‘Professional’’ work of experienced physical education teachers. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 70 (1), 41–55. Mearns, K., Hope, L., 2005. Health and well-being in the offshore environment: The Management of Personal Health. Research Report 305. HSE Books, Norwich. Mehra, N., 2006. Express Hospitality. Nov, 42. Mitchell, C., 2000. Selling the brand inside. Harvard Business Review 80 (1), 99–105. Mullins, L.J., 1996. Management and Organisational Behaviour. Pitman Publishing, London. Mumford, E., 2006. The story of socio-technical design: reflections on its successes, failures and potential. Information Systems Journal 16 (4), 317–342. Nachmias, D., 1988. The quality of work life in the Federal bureaucracy: conceptualization and measurement. The American Review of Public Administration 18 (2), 165–173. Nadler, D., Lawler, E., 1983. Quality of work life: perspectives and directions. Organization Dynamics 11 (4), 20–30. Neuman, W.L., 1997. Social Research Methods, Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches, third ed. Allyn and Bacon, Boston. Oliver, R.L., 1980. A cognitive model of the antecedents and consequences of satisfaction decisions. Journal of Marketing Research 17 (4), 460–469. Pearson, C.A.L., 1995. The turnover process in organizations: an exploration of the role of met–unmet expectations. Human Relations 48 (4), 405–420. Pizam, A., Thornburg, S.W., 2000. Absenteeism and voluntary turnover in Central Florida hotels: a pilot study. International Journal of Hospitality Management 19 (2), 211–217. Porter, L.W., Steers, R.M., 1973. Organizational, work, and personal factors in employee turnover and absenteeism. Psychological Bulletin 80 (2), 161–176. Portes, A., 1998. Social capital: its origins and applications in modern sociology. Annual Review of Sociology 24 (1), 1–24. Requena, F., 2003. Social capital, satisfaction and quality of life in the workplace. Social Indicators Research 61 (3), 331–360.
Robbins, S.P., 1998. Organisational Behaviour, eight ed. Simon and Schuster, New Jersey. Rose, C.R., Beh, L., Uli, J., Idris, K., 2006. An analysis of quality of work life and careerrelated variables. American Journal of Applied Science 3 (12), 2151–2159. Rousseau, D., 1995. Psychological Contracts in Organizations: Understanding Written and Unwritten Agreements. Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA. Sashkin, M., Burke, W.W., 1987. Organization development in the 1980’s. Journal of Management 13 (2), 393–417. Saunders, M., Lewis, P., Thornhill, A., 2000. Research Methods for Business Students, second ed. Pearson Education, Harlow. Schneider, B., Hanges, P.J., Smith, D.B., Salvaggio, A.N., 2003. Which comes first: employee attitudes or organizational financial and market performance? Journal of Applied Psychology 88 (5), 836–851. Shelley, M.M., Andrea, K.W., 2007. Lessons from work life research for developing human resources. Advances in Developing Human Resources 9 (4), 556– 568. Sirgy, J.M., Efraty, D., Siegel, P., Lee, D., 2001. A new measure of quality of work life (QWL) based on need satisfaction and spillover theories. Social Indicators Research 55 (3), 241–302. Smola, K.W., Sutton, C.D., 2002. Generational differences: revisiting generational work values for the new millennium. Journal of Organizational Behaviour 23 (4), 363–382. Starks, G.L., 2007. The effect of person–job fit on the retention of top college graduates in federal agencies. Review of Public Personnel Administration 27 (1), 59–70. Stjernberg, T., 1977. Organizational Change and Quality of Life. EFI, Stockholm. Strauss, A., Corbin, J.M., 1990. Basics of Qualitative Research: Grounded theory Procedures and Techniques. Sage, Newbury Park, CA. Strauss, A., Corbin, J.M., 1998. Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory. Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA. Teng, C., 2008. The effects of personality traits and attitudes on student uptake in hospitality employment. International Journal of Hospitality Management 27 (1), 76–86. Tracey, J.B., Hinkin, T.R., 2008. Contextual factors and cost profiles associated with employee turnover. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly 49 (1), 12–27. Tyagi, P.K., 1985. Relative importance of key job dimensions and leadership behaviors in motivating salesperson work performance. Journal of Marketing 49 (3), 76–86. Walton, R.E., 1975. Criteria for quality of working life. In: Davis, L.E., Cherns, A.B. (Eds.), The Quality of Working Life. The Free Press, and Associates, New York, pp. 91–104. Waryszak, R.Z., 1999. Students’ expectations from their cooperative education placements in the hospitality industry: an international perspective. Education and Training 41 (1), 33–40. Waters, L.V., 2003. Overcome hidden expenses, migrating staff. Nursing Management 34 (5), 20–24. Webster’s new world dictionary of the American language, tenth ed., 1995. Merriam-Webster, NY. Woods, R.C., 1993. Managing to meet employee expectations: quality improvement tools narrow the gap between employee expectations and company resources. Human Resource Planning 16 (4), 13–28. Yu, L., 1999. The International Hospitality Business. The Haworth Hospitality Press, New York.
Continue Reading

Please join StudyMode to read the full document

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Essay on Study of Tourism Hospitality and Event
  • Explain the Differences and Similarities Between Hospitality and Hospitality Management Then Give Examples of Traditional Iranian/ Persian/...
  • Hospitality Industry Essay
  • Essay on Software Name: Hotel Management System Defined with Inntegrity
  • Hospitality Essay
  • Employment Turnover in Hospitality Industry in Hanoi Essay
  • Hospitality Management Essay
  • Hm370 Hospitality Management Paper

Become a StudyMode Member

Sign Up - It's Free