Ques 1: - Describe in detail healthcare delivery system in India? Ans: - The Healthcare delivery system broadly consists of the following sectors or agencies:-
1. PUBLIC HEALTH SECTOR
a) Primary Health Care
Primary health centres.
b) Hospitals/Health Centres
Community Health Centres.
c) Health Insurance Schemes
Employees States Insurance Scheme (ESIS).
Central Government Health Scheme (CGHS).
d) Other agencies
2. PRIVATE SECTOR
a) Private hospitals, polyclinics, dispensaries and nursing homes. b) General Practitioners and Clinics, Private hospital includes hospitals run on profit basis, no loss- no profit basis and corporate hospitals.
3. Voluntary Health Agencies.
4. National Health Programmes.
PUBLIC HEALTH SECTOR:-
Primary health care:-
i) Village Health Guide Scheme:- It was introduced on 2nd October,1977 and launches in all states except Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Arunachal Pradesh and Jammu Kashmir. A village health guide is a person with an aptitude for social services and is not a government functionary. The health guides are mostly women now. They are chosen by the community in which they work and serve as links between community and governmental infrastructure.
Guidelines for their selection are:-
Should be permanent residents of the local community.
Should have minimum formal education of at least upto
Should be acceptable to all sections of the community.
Should be able to spare at least 2-3 hours per day for
community health work.
After selection, they undergo training in the nearest primary health centre for 200 hours spreads over a period of 3 months and receive Rs 200/- per month.
Duties assigned includes:-
Treatment of simple medical ailments and activities in
Mother and child health including family planning.
ii) Local Dias:- Under the Rural Health Scheme, an extensive programme has to be undertaken to train all categories of local Dais (traditional birth attendants) to improve their knowledge in the elementary concepts of material and child health and sterilization. Training is at PHC, Subcentres or MCH centres for 2 days a week and remaining 4 days the accompany the Health Workers to the villages. During training each Dai is required to do 2 deliveries under the guidance of health worker, emphasis being on asepsis so that home deliveries are conducted under safe hygiene conditions thereby reducing maternal and infant mortality.
iii) Anganwadi Workers:- Under the integrated Child Development Service Scheme, there is an anganwadi workers for every 1000 population and one ICDS project has 1000 anganwadi workers. The anganwadi worker is selected by community she is expected to serve and is trained in various aspects of health, nutrition and child development for 4 months. She is paid Rs 200-250/- per month for services rendered which include health check-up, immunization, supplementary nutrition, health education, non-formal preschool education and referral services.
Sub-centre level:- It is the peripheral outpost of the existing health delivery system in rural areas. One sub-centre covers 5000 population in general and one for every 3000 population in hilly, tribal and backward areas. The functions of a sub-centre are limited to mother and child health care, family planning and immunization.
There are 2 functionaries at the level of the Subcentres:- i) Health Care Male.
ii) Health Care Female.
One health assistant will supervise the work of 6...
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