Running Head: Homosexuality
Robert Morris University
There are many things in this world that makes people different from one another in a variety of ways. It could be people’s style of dress, their family backgrounds, their races, where they are from, and many other things. Sometimes these differences can be seen as outside the social norm, which can come across as “weird”. One thing that differentiates many people in the world is their sexual orientation. There are those who are heterosexual and they can be seen as people who are sexually attracted to or have sexual relations with someone of the opposite sex. On the other hand, there are those who are totally different from heterosexuals, and they are known as homosexuals. Homosexuality is one of those things that many people depending on what society they live in, see as “weird” because it is not considered to be a social norm. It is something different which does not come along with the majority of people. But just like heterosexuals, homosexuals are regular people doing things that make them happy despite their sexual preference.
Homosexuality can be defined as having a sexual attraction or having sexual relations with a person of the same sex. Men that are considered homosexual are called gay and women are referred to as lesbians. There are many theories that people have come up with explaining why people are homosexual, and even though there is no factual proof that these theories are correct, it gives some insight on what may cause homosexuality. Three major theories that have been taken into consideration are the biological theory psychological theory, the sociological theory. Many homosexuals believe that “their sexual orientation is the result of biological forces over which they have no control or choice,” and this helps to create the biological theory of homosexuality (Johnson, Kolodny, & Masters, 1995 p.35). There have been many studies done that have looked at genetic factors, brain factors, and hormonal factors which all play a role in the biological make up of a person. According to William Masters, Virginia E. Johnson, and Robert C. Kolodny (1995), one specific study was explained that looked at the genetic makeup of twins. The study examined two set of twins. One set was identical and the other was fraternal, and one of the identical twins was gay. Because both the twins grew up in the same prenatal and postnatal environment, the genetic cause of homosexuality was believed to be the same in the identical twins because they have identical genes. This means that both twins would be the same sex. On the other hand the fraternal twins had a lower expectation of having the same genetic cause of homosexuality because they have a different genetic makeup. The study was proven to be correct because it showed that the identical twins had 100 percent of the same genetic makeup for homosexuality and the fraternal twins only had a12 percent makeup. Other then the genetic studies, there has been no other links that determine same sex orientation is biological (p.35).
When considering the psychological theory, it was once thought that homosexuality was seen as a mental disorder. This was proven wrong by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) in 1973 when it concluded that it was actually normal. Just like heterosexuals, gay and lesbians find attractions to each other through forms of natural human bonding. Even though homosexuality is no longer seen as mental disorder by many, it is still thought that some homosexuals suffer from a sexual orientation disorder. This can be described as gays and lesbians having a difficult time accepting that they are attracted to the same sex and being comfortable with themselves (Thio, 2007). Physiatrists that believe this think that people who are attracted to the same sex are actually afraid of the opposite sex for an unknown reason. What is said to...
References: Anderson, B. (2007). The politics of homosexuality in Africa. A journal of ideas on Africa and African Diaspora 1(1) 140-153
Homosexuality. (2008). Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2008. Retrieved February 12, 2009, from http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761562012/Homosexuality.html
Johnson E., Virginia, Kolodny C., Robert & Masters H., William. (1995).Human Sexuality (5th ed.). New York, NY: Harper Collins College
Gellen, Denise. (2008. June 17). Brains of gay men show similarities to those of heterosexual women, study says. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved February 11, 2009, from http://articles.latimes.com/2008/jun/17/science/sci-gaylesbian17
Thio, Alex (2007).Deviant Behavior (9th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc.
Please join StudyMode to read the full document