Home Environment and Academic Performance
Background of the Study.
Nigerian environment is associated with unclassified problems entangled with impoverish outlook and being devoid of most modern facilities and infrastructure that could sustain an urban area. This is clearly manifested on the standard of living and the contribution of the people towards national development. This circumvented problem in the rural areas has adverse effect on the students’ academic performance. It is imperative therefore to exhume the associated rural problem that affects their academic achievement with the prevailing order in the educational arsenal. Most often than not, there has been persistent cry about the state of intellectual attainment in the school system. This cry does not include only student’s performance in the rural area but in the urban as well.
Environment according to Oxford Advanced dictionary is the natural conditions like land, air and water, in which people, animals and plants live and also circumstances affecting their life. Environment can be physical or psychological. Physical environment deals with material aspects such as infrastructure, availability of resource facilities. The psychological environment includes the home, school community and significantly other people in our lives such as parents, peers and siblings. The quality of our home is very significant; some have a history or tradition of formal education and modern influences, while some are not so well equipped. The gadgets, resources and facilities in both types of home will influence the learning processes of children born in these homes. Studies have shown that if a child lives in an impoverished environment for the first four years of life, he is likely to lose as many as, in reading knowledge and skills, general knowledge and skills. “The environment” provides the necessary conditions for both physical and intellectual growth. The African child has often been hand capped by ill-health, lack of motivation, nutritional deficiencies, and unfair criticism. This hampers his intellectual development considering as such treatment invariably result in negative self-concept. “Home” is where the child, the parent or guardians live and from where the child set out to and fro to school. Home is first enduring environmental factor in promoting readiness for school work in the child. This is because parents or guardians in the home are children first teacher. From the day a child is born and begins to hear, he or she begins to develop literacy as parents and other caring adults and pre-school teachers speaks, play, sing and read to them. As a child he moves from infant to toddler and then to preschooler, he learns to be able to read, write, listen and speak. Early literacy development is a significant part of preparing children to achieve academically. Basic literacy activities that are associated with children’s engagement with texts and success in reading were identified by literacy researchers (Dickinson and Tabors, 2001; Wasik and Band 2001) includes; oral language development, which includes book reading, phoneme awareness activities (acquired through nursery rhymes jingles poetry, and books that contain words with rhymes). And exposure to alphabet. The influence of parents especially, Mothers on children early literacy acquisition and subsequent school achievement is well documented in numerous studies (Trusty, 1998, Yan & Lin 2002; Godden & Ray 2003). Research shows that greater parental involvement in children’s learning positively affects the child’s school performance including higher academic achievements (Mc Neal’1999; Scribner, Lin 2003); and greater social and emotional development. Parents not only provide good learning experiences, and through talking with the child, sharing experiences and teaching but also help to organize a child’s...
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