top-rated free essay

Holland Theory

By y3ey3e1217 May 06, 2013 975 Words
2b. John Holland’s theory
John Holland is the most well known career theories among others. Holland’s theory of career development is a significant vocational theory in career development. Holland’s theory emerged from the Factor and Trait Theory. The theory assumes that individual’s personality characteristics and occupational environment should match to lead success. There are six premises that can be used to explain Holland’s theory. This theory states that most people have one of the six personality types which are realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising and conventional. These categories can be represented in the form of a hexagon which reveals the extent to which each of the categories link with each other. For example studies indicate that categories which lie close to each other in the hexagon is most possible strongly correlate with each other than those who lie at a distance. Individuals who fall into the realistic type are often practical minded and physically strong. They also like to work outdoors and have difficulty communicating feelings. They dislike radical ideas but like to build or repair things. They are not too social keen on socializing but aggressive and like to create things with their own hands. They will like activities requiring motor skill and coordination. Examples of suitable jobs are farmer, truck driver, builder, pilot or builder. The investigative type consists of individuals who prefer solving mathematical problems but do not like rules. They like science but not mostly interested in working with other people. They have original and creative in scientific areas, independent and rational. They also try to understand and curious about physical work and are challenged by theoretical problems. Examples of suitable jobs are chemist, mathematician, pharmacist, dentist or researcher. Individuals who fall into the artistic type tend to be more self expressive and creative in artistic media such as writing, music and art. They like to work alone. Due to their sensitiveness, they don't like structure and unconventional. They also like to express feelings and to be themselves. Examples of suitable jobs are artist, actor, dancer, designer, DJ, composer or painter. Those who fall into the social category are concerned with welfare of others, responsible, get along well with people, express themselves well, sociable, like attention, tend to be popular, like to be a leaders, like intense relationships with others, and solve problems by discussing them with others. The enterprising type are good with words, enthusiastic, like leadership roles, adventurous, like to persuade others to a viewpoint, energetic, self-confident, don't like work that requires long periods of intellectual effort, like material wealth, like to work in expensive settings. The conventional types dislike work requiring physical skills, dependable, like to know what's expected of them, stable, prefer structured activities, good self-control, don't mind rules and regulations, know what is right and wrong, don't seek leadership roles, and like well-defined tasks (Smart, Feldman & Ethington, 2006). Holland states that people of the same personality tend to stick together, working in a specific context, and create a working environment that fits their type (Myors, 1996). He also refers to six basic types of work environments: realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising, and conventional. People who choose to work in an environment similar to their personality type are more likely to be successful and satisfied. How one acts and feels at work depends to a large extent on their workplace environment. Lastly, if you are working with people who have a personality type like yours, you will be able to do many of the things they can do, and you will feel most comfortable with them. Therefore, this means that one should probably choose an occupation whose type is the same as, or similar to, their personality type. Holland provides a criterion that people can use to base their career decisions on by checking which personality type they fall in according to which best describes them. Individuals need to be aware of aspects of their personality (self knowledge) in order to determine where they fall. Therefore, one must be able to match their personality and compatibility with the work environment to ensure a successful and satisfactory career. Holland believed that career success largely depended on the congruency between the person’s personality and the work environment. Holland’s premise of the immutability of individual personality traits and the necessity of matching them with occupational or academic environment to achieve success has been criticized. Feldman, Smart and Ethington (2004) argue that the emphasis on the congruency as criterion to judge success in explaining vocational interests and behaviors when the focus is on educational interests and behaviors might be problematic reflect upon the fact that histo
rically educational institutions such as universities and colleges have sought to promote student growth and development of multiple and distinctive abilities and interest domain regardless of initial individual personality characteristics. Therefore, the argument centers on the question of immutability of characteristics as well as if such a concept is valid in the development of individuals. In summary, Holland’s theory predicts that individuals will choose careers which are consistent with their personal characteristics, however, lack of self knowledge and career information might impede on making career choices which might lead to individuals making career choices that lie outside individual’s dominant personality domains resulting in poor personality or occupational fit. Therefore, like Parsons’ theory, it is vital that individual acquire the necessary career knowledge and self knowledge during career decision-making. This again illustrates the importance of exploring career knowledge and self knowledge. It is important to note though that personality characteristics are not dull but evolve as the individual develops. Therefore, it becomes difficult to predict that an individual’s present match between personality traits and occupations choice will be stable across their life time. As stated above, it may not always be possible for individuals to acquire work that compliments their traits.

Cite This Document

Related Documents

  • Management Administrative Theory theory and practice and how are they relevant to managers in contemporary organisations? Ever since the early of 20th century, management has been studied as a science due to its important role in influencing various factors of life: from economic, technological to political. Many scholars tried to give us the exact definition of t...

    Read More

    ... In the world today theory has become a fundamental part of academics and is becoming increasingly apparent in studies of the formation of society. Theoretical approaches are widely accepted and in some cases depended upon by scholars in most major fields of study including, Law, Accounting, Mathematics, Management, Sociology and Experimental Ps...

    Read More
  • Accounting Theory

    ... In his 1989 article Mouck cites Morgan (1988) who observed that: “The idea that accountants represent reality ‘as is ‘ through the means of numbers that are objective and value free, has clouded the much more important insight that accountants are always engaged in interpreting a complex reality, partially, and in a way that is heavil...

    Read More
  • Small Group Theories

    ...Chapter Two: Small Group Communication Theory OBJECTIVES: Describe some of the Central Issues (nature, function, relevance) of Group Communication Theory. Discuss Five General Theories that apply to Small Group Communication. Explain the Constellation Model of Small Group Communication. Identify some of the Components of Small Group ...

    Read More
  • Theory Research

    ...IV: Theories in Scientific Research Theories- are explanations of natural or social behaviour, event or phenomenon. Scientific Theory- is a system of constructs (concepts) and propositions (relationship between those constructs). It presents a logical, systematic and coherent explanations of a phenomenon of interest. Theories should explain ...

    Read More
  • Research and Theories

    ...Research and Theories Terrie Gill Unit 1 IP Dear, Police Captain; To start off I would just like to give thanks for my opportunity to join you in your work. As an expert in the Criminal Justice Field, I would like to share my expertise to help you determine a solution to your new citywide crime prevention strategy. The four areas of resea...

    Read More
  • Bus310 Accounting Theory and Accountability

    ...BUS310 ACCOUNTING THEORY AND ACCOUNTABILITY WORKSHOP 1 SOLUTIONS 1) GHHT: Chapter 1: Theory in Action 1.1 The article describes how a particular theoretical approach has been replaced by another. Explain why one theory replaces another, and who, or what, determines whether an existing theory survives. A theory is primarily meant to exp...

    Read More
  • Four Theories Of Disasters

    ...The Four Fundamental Theories of Disasters The Four Fundamental Theories of Disasters Over the course of human history mankind has viewed natural disasters with a wide range of theories as to their causes and meanings. As we have come to learn more about our world through science and observation, we have changed our perspective as well as o...

    Read More

Discover the Best Free Essays on StudyMode

Conquer writer's block once and for all.

High Quality Essays

Our library contains thousands of carefully selected free research papers and essays.

Popular Topics

No matter the topic you're researching, chances are we have it covered.