John L Holland, Ph.D., professor emeritus at Johns Hopkins University, is a psychologist who devoted his professional life to researching issues related to career choice and satisfaction. He developed a well-known theory, and designed several assessments and supporting materials to assist people in making effective career choices. His theory and assessment tools have helped millions of people worldwide and are supported by hundreds of research studies.
Holland proposed personality job fit theory which identifies six personality types and proposes that the fit between personality type and occupational environment determines satisfaction and turnover.
Holland found that people needing help with career decisions can be supported by understanding their resemblance to the following six ideal vocational personality types:
• Realistic (R)
• Investigative (I)
• Artistic (A)
• Social (S)
• Enterprising (E)
• Conventional (C)
Work settings can also be categorized by their resemblance to six similar model work environments. Because people search for environments that allow them to express their interests, skills, attitudes and values, and take on interesting problems and agreeable roles, work environments become populated by individuals with related occupational personality types.
According to Holland, if personality type matches the work environment, success and satisfaction can improve. The idea is that “birds of a feather, flock together,” and that people with the same personality type tend to enjoy working with each other. For example, Artistic people enjoy working with other Artistic people.
Additionally, people with the same personality type tend to create a work environment that rewards thinking and behaving like that type. Holland’s Six Personality Types
The descriptions of Holland’s personality types refer to idealized or pure types. Holland’s personality