Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions
Geert Hofstede devoted over a decade to researching cultural differences and developed an internationally recognized model of cultural dimensions. There are five main dimensions of culture that serve as a guide to understanding intercultural communications, business, and effective social exchange. The five dimensions are Power Distance, Individualism, Masculinity, Uncertainty Avoidance, and Long-Term Orientation and were developed to provide a method to strategizing cultural interactions.
Power Distance PD-
Power Distance is the first of Geert Hofstede’s Five Cultural Dimensions. Power Distance refers to the extent in which the less powerful people of a society accept the unequal distribution of power. Societies with a high degree of Power Distance accept whatever inequalities there might be as the norm, while ones with a lower degree consider themselves equals. Societies with the lowest degrees of Power Distance will not tolerate an unequal distribution of power. The Power Distance Dimension is primarily based upon the question, “How frequently are employees afraid to express disagreement with their managers?”(Orr p.5)
Individualism versus Collectivism (IDV)-
Individualism and Collectivism define the opposite ends of this dimension; Individualism referring to ones lack of need for communal bonds, while Collectivism describes a society with strong familial responsibility and community relationships. An individualistic society feels little responsibility towards one another and everyone one attend solely to their own business (Rinne p.130).
Masculinity versus Femininity (MAS)-
Masculinity and Femininity are used to distinguish whether a society stresses achievement, competition, and assertiveness over nurturing, cooperation, and fluid gender roles. Holfstede’s own definitions for Masculinity and Femininity are as follows: “Masculinity stands for a society in which social gender roles are clearly distinct:
References: http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_66.htm http://geert-hofstede.com/dimensions.html http://geert-hofstede.com/brazil.html http://geert-hofstede.com/germany.html Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture 's consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations (Revised/Expanded ed., p. 297). Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications. Orr, L.M., & Hauser, W.J. (2008). A Re-Inquiry of Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions: A Call for 21st Century Cross-Cultural Research. Marketing Management Journal, 18(2), 1-19 Litvin, S.W., Crotts, J.C., & Hefner, F.L. (2004). Cross-Cultural Tourist Behaviour: A Replication and Extension Involving Hofstede’s Uncertainty Avoidance Dimension. International Journal of Tourism Research, 6(1), 29-37 doi:10.1002/jtr.468 Rinne, T., Steel,G., & Fairweather,J.(2013). The Role of Hofstede’s Individualism in National-Level Creativity. Creativity Research Journal, 25(1), 129-136. Doi:10.1080/10400419.2013.752293 Hofstede, G., & Minkov, M. (2010). Long- Versus Short-Term Orientation: New Perspectives. Asia Pacific Business Review, 16(4), 493-504. Doi:10.1080/1360238100363709