hofstede hall theory

Topics: Geert Hofstede, Culture, Cross-cultural communication Pages: 20 (5967 words) Published: January 18, 2014
Hall theory
Book notes
He came to the field of cross-cultural analysis from the discipline of anthropology. He argued that all peoples interpret and create messages in reference to shared values. This information includes values in the culture, which link members of the culture group and influence how they refer to their contexts when maintaining relationships. Members` experiences of context will influence how they communicate. And different culture groups respond to their contexts differently. Hall model distinguished between high-context and low-context cultures. Members of HIGH-context cultures depend heavily on their shared experience and interpretation of their cultural environment in creating and interpreting communications. Members of the culture group lead from birth to interpret the covert clues given in these contexts when they communicate and so much meaning is conveyed indirectly. In languages such as Arabic, Chinese, Japanese indirect styles of communication and the capacity to interpret non-verbal signals and indirect illusions are prized. But in LOW-context cultures the environment is less important and non-verbal behaviour is often ignored and so communicators have to provide more explicit information. HIGH-CONTEXT CULTURES CHARACTERISTICS

Relationships (positive and negative) are relatively LONG lasting and individuals feel deep personal involvement with each other. •Because so much is communicated by SHARED CODE, communication is economical fast and efficient – in a routine situation. High context cultures fully exploit the communicative context: example The Japanese talk around the point. They think intelligent human begins should be able to discover the point of discourse from the context, which they are careful to provide. •Communication in high-context cultures employes a far wider range of expression than is usual in ANGLO cultures. The Japanese can communicate widely using non-verbal signalling and non-language utterances known as “belly language”. Where there is doubt, they interpret the meaning of this belly language by examining the persons face. •People in AUTHORITY ARE personally responsible for the actions of subordinates. Loyalties between superiors and subordinates are reciprocal. •Agreements (between members) tend to be SPOKEN rather than written. This can man a written contract is only best guess •INSIDERS AND OUTSIDERS are closely DISTINGUISHERD; insiders include first, members of the family, then clan, organization. Foreigners are usually treated as outsiders. •Cultural patterns are ingrained and slow to change.

Relationships between individuals are relatively shorter in duration and deep personal involvement with others is valued less. •Messages must be made EXPLICIT, and the sender can depend less on the receiver inferring the message from the context. Members depend less on using non-verbal communications codes. •Authority is diffused throughout the bureaucratic system and personal responsibility is difficult to pin down. •Agreements tend to be written rather than spoken. Low-context cultures treat contracts as final and legally binding and are less willing to renegotiate. The obsession with precision may bewilder members of high-context cultures. •INSIDERS AND OUTSIDERS are less closely distinguished. This means that foreigners find it relatively easier to adjust. •Cultural patterns are faster to change.

Cultures with higher contexts include JAPAN, china, korea, vietnman and other Asian countries (In the middle east). Cultures with lower contexts include the USA, Scandinavian countries and Germany. France exemplifies a country whose culture is a mix of high- and low- context situations. This model is useful in understanding why different cultures might communicate differently, for example in developing business relationships, negotiating with insiders and outsiders and implementing contracts. SLIDE NOTES

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