Hofstede’s 5 dimension
Hofstede's 5 dimensions theory is a framework for cross-cultural communication. There are five elements in this dimension, which are power distance, individualism versus collectivism, masculinity versus femininity, uncertainty avoidance and short term versus long term orientation. First dimension is power distance. Power distance refers to the degree of inequality that exists and is accepted among people with and without power. A high PD score indicates that society accepts an unequal distribution of power, and that people understand "their place" in the system. Low PD means that power is shared and well dispersed. It also means that society members view themselves as equals. For example, Indonesia scores high in this dimension which means Indonesian being dependent on hierarchy, unequal rights between power holders and non power holders, leaders are directive, management controls and delegates. Power is centralized and managers count on the obedience of their team members. Second is individualism versus collectivism. In individualistic cultures people are expected to portray themselves as individuals, who seek to accomplish individual goals and needs. In collectivistic cultures, people have greater emphasis on the welfare of the entire group to which the individual belongs, where individual wants, needs and dreams are often set aside for the common good.For example, Indonesia, with a low score of individualism which mean is a Collectivist society. This means there is a high preference for a strongly defined social framework in which individuals are expected to conform to the ideals of the society and the in-groups to which they belong. Third is masculinity versus femininity. This refers to how much a society sticks with values, traditional male and female roles. High MAS scores are found in countries where men are expected to be "tough," to be the provider, and to be assertive. If women work outside the home, they tend to have separate...
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