Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions Us vs. India

Topics: Geert Hofstede, Dimension, Cross-cultural communication Pages: 8 (2483 words) Published: March 8, 2013
January 19, 2013

Abstract
This article acknowledges the six dimensions of Hofstede’s theory of cultural dimensions, and defines five of them for a comparison between the United States and India. This article shows for the most part, the definitions of Hofstede’s cultural dimensions are correct, but the article did identify some ambiguities while making the comparisons. Finally, future areas of possible research were identified that would assist in the removal of the ambiguities.

Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions US vs. India
Geert Hofstede’s theory of cultural dimensions was a result of an analysis of a world-wide survey of employee values by IBM in the 1960’s and 1970’s. This theory describes the effects of a society’s culture on the values of that culture’s members and how those values relate to behavior. This is accomplished by using a structure resulting from factor analysis (Hofstede, 2011). This theory has been used as an example for several fields, particularly in cross-cultural psychology (Hofstede, 2011). Geert Hofstede’s original cultural dimensions theory had four dimensions from which cultural values could be analyzed. These four dimensions were: (a) individualism versus collectivism (IDV); (b) uncertainty avoidance (UAI); (c) power distance (PDI); (d) masculinity versus femininity (MAS). While Hofstede was performing research in Hong Kong he added the fifth dimension, long-term orientation (LTO). In 2010, Hofstede and co-author Michael Minkov wrote “Cultures and Organizations Software of the Mind.” As a result of Minkov’s analysis from the World Value Survey, Hofstede added a sixth dimension, indulgence versus self-restraint (IVR). In the five dimension model, a scale exists for 50 countries and 3 regions for each dimension. See Appendix A. This was later updated to 93 countries. The scale ranges approximately from 0 to 100 with each country having a position on each scale relative to the other countries (Hofstede, 2011). Using the first five of Hofstede’s dimensions, a comparison is done of the United States with India. See Appendix B. The definition of each of the dimensions in Geert Hofstede’s theory of cultural dimensions has very specific criteria that are used to score each country. See Appendix C. The United States (US) scores a 91 on the individualism versus collectivism dimension. This shows that the members of this culture are highly individualistic. This is because the US is a melting pot of many cultures. The members are taught early on to be independent. These members are not shy, their work is gauged on its merit, and they are very mobile (Hofstede, 2013). India scores a 48 on the individualism versus collectivism dimension. This shows that the members of this culture prefer belonging to collectivism. These members are highly influenced by family and their social networks, they are very loyal to their employer, and they work toward the greater good of their group (Hofstede, 2013). The US scores a 46 on the uncertainty avoidance dimension. This shows that the members of this culture are more tolerant, more willing to accept new ideas, and more willing to try new things. This would also indicate that not a lot of rules are needed (Hofstede, 2011). This does not seem to be the case as there are many sets of laws that the members of this culture governed by. There are federal, state, and municipal laws, just to mention a few. India scores a 40 on the uncertainty avoidance dimension. This shows they are even less structured than the US. People are less driven and more incline to accept what comes their way. This is true in their careers and the unexpected (Hofstede, 2013). The US scores a 40 on the power distance dimension. This highlights the fact that the US believes in equality, liberty, and justice for all of its cultural members. There is significant communication between upper management and the employees. Companies count on their employees for new ideas and to help the company grow....

References: Basabe N. & Ros M. (2005, April 4). Cultural dimensions and social behavior correlates: Individualism-Collectivism and Power Distance. Retrieved from http://www.ehu.es/pswparod/pdf/articulos/Basabe1801.pdf
Hofstede G
Hofstede G. (2013). THE HOFSTEDE CENTRE. Retrieved from http://geert-hofstede.com/the-hofstede-centre.html
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Hofstede G. (2013). THE HOFSTEDE CENTRE. Retrieved from http://geert-hofstede.com/the-hofstede-centre.html
Appendix A
Hofstede 5 Dimension Definitions
Individualism versus collectivism is “related to the integration of individuals into primary groups” (Hofstede, 2011)
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