Topics: Blood, Hypertension, Liver Pages: 8 (1556 words) Published: August 22, 2014
Assessment 1 HLTAP501C Courtney Walters XN14S1PT Due date: 14/05/2014

Activity 4.2:
Define hypertension and arteriosclerosis
Hypertension is also called high blood pressure. It is a condition where the blood is pumping harder around the body and the arteries have high blood pressure constantly. Arteriosclerosis is when the artery walls harden and the blood has to be pushed harder to get through the arteries. How are they often related?

These two conditions are related because when someone gets arteriosclerosis it will lead to getting hypertension. With the arterial walls hardening, the heart has to pump faster and harder to get the blood through causing the hypertension.

Why is hypertension called the ‘silent killer’?
Hypertension is called the silent killer because most people do not get any symptoms and could eventually leads to stroke, heart attack, heart failure and kidney failure.

Name three changes in your lifestyle that might help to prevent cardiovascular disease in old age. Three things I can do to prevent cardiovascular disease is;
No smoking
Having a healthy diet
Undesirable clot formation can occur as a result of endothelial damage due to arteriosclerosis. How does the body form undesirable clots within intact blood vessels? Blood has three factors for it to clot. The three factors are; a hypercoagulatable state which means the blood can clot quickly because of increased platelets or thick blood due to hydration. Vessel incontinuity, meaning there is a disruption in the smooth inner lining in the blood vessel. This can happen because of smoking or naturally due to bends and manipulation of blood vessels over a lifetime. The last thing blood needs to clot is blood stasis which is blood pooling and standing still. When blood is going through a vessel it is called a parabolic profile. This means that the blood in the middle of the vessel is moving the fastest and the blood on the walls is pretty much at a standstill. This will make the blood clot if it is hypercoagulatable, not moving, and is contact with a damaged vessel or rough surface.

Activity 5.2:
At handover you are told a patient/client is cyanotic. What would you expect to observe? Cyanosis is a sign of tissue hypoxia. Define what this means and name three conditions where this could occur: I would be observing my patient’s skin to see if there are any changes in the colour. Cyanosis is where the skin turns a bluish or purple colour because the tissue near the skin is low on oxygen. Tissue hypoxia is one part of the body that is not getting anywhere near the correct amount of oxygen supply. Cyanosis is a late sign of hypoxia but is not always accurate. Three conditions where this could occur is emphysema, chronic bronchitis and can also lead to heart failure and death.

Activity 5.3:
Describe the difference between a tracheostomy and endotracheal intubation. A tracheostomy is a surgically made incision in the neck into the trachea. This hole is made because there is something blocking the airways. An endotracheal intubation is a medical procedure where a tube gets inserted into the trachea through the mouth or nose. The difference between the two procedures is, a tracheostomy has a surgical incision and an intubation is being placed into the throat with no incisions.

Activity 5.4:
Why will a patient who is anaemic complain of shortness of breath? People with anaemia are complaining of shortness of breath because the body is making fewer red blood cells. Because there is fewer red blood cells, there is fewer oxygen being carried around the body and also less carbon dioxide being removed, therefore causing the shortness of breath.

Activity 5.5:
Paul is 15 years old, he has a known allergy to cashew nuts, but can eat all other...

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How does a hemorrhage affect urine output
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