1. What are the two groups whose results are reflected by the t ratios in Tables 2 and 3?

Answer: The two groups that are reflected by the t rations in table 2 and 3 are the Program effects of cardiovascular risk factors (Table 2) and program effect on Health behavior (Table 3).

2. Which t ratio in Table 2 represents the greatest relative or standardized difference between the pretest and 3 months outcomes? Is this t ratio statistically significant? Provide a rationale for your answer.

Answer: The greatest relative or standardized difference between the pretest and 3 month outcome is for the total risk score t ratio of t = 4.14*. Due to the presence of an asterisk next to the t ratio, it shows that the result is statistically significant. Therefore, the results shows that there been a decrease in risk score from pretest mean of 20.1 to 3 month mean of 16.8.

3. Which t ratio listed in Table 3 represents the smallest relative difference between the pretest and 3 months? Is this t ratio statistically significant? What does this result mean?

Answer: t=-0.65(stress management) represent the smallest relative or standardized difference between pretest and 3 months in table 3. This t ratio does not have an asterisk (*) next to it in table 3, therefore, it is not statistically significant. At 3 months, the difference in stress management from pretest was no longer statistically significant with t=-0.65.

4. What are the assumptions for conducting a t-test for dependent groups in a study? Which of these assumptions do you think were met by this study?

Answer: “The distribution of scores is normal or approximately normally distributed, the dependent variable(s) is (are) measured at interval or ratio levels, the groups examined for differences are dependent based on matching or subjects serving as their own control, and the differences between the paired scores are independent” are the assumptions for the t-test for dependent groups in a