HIV/AIDS and Women

Topics: HIV, AIDS, Sexual intercourse Pages: 20 (4582 words) Published: September 20, 2014


Table of Content
Content

Page
Table of content
:
1
1. Introduction
:
2
2. HIV/AIDS
:
2
3. HIV/AIDS and women
:
2
4. Special signs and symptoms of HIV/AIDS in women
:
3
5. Vulnerability of women to AIDS
:
3
6. The challenges that HIV/AIDS infected women faced
:
4
7. Transmission of HIV to women
:
5
8. Global distribution of HIV/AIDS among women
:
5
9. The impact of HIV on women
:
7
10. Prevention
:
9
11. HIV treatment
:
9
12. Prevention Challenges
:
11
13. The Global Response to HIV/AIDS
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11
14. The Global Coalition on Women and AIDS
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12
15. Women and HIV related MDGs, its target and impact of HIV to achieve the target :
13
16. HIV/AIDS and women in Bangladesh
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14
17. Conclusion
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16
References
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18

1. Introduction:
Human immunodeficiency virus infection / acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a disease of the human immune system caused by infection with human immunodeficiency virus. The first cases were reported in 1981. HIV not only affects the health of individuals, it impacts households, communities, and the development and economic growth of nations.

2. HIV/AIDS:

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (slowly replicating retrovirus) that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, a condition in humans in which progressive failure of the immune system allows life-threatening opportunistic infections and cancers to thrive. Infection with HIV occurs by the transfer of blood, semen, vaginal fluid, pre-ejaculate or breast milk. There are two types of HIV- HIV-1 and HIV-2. (HIV 1: spread in worldwide, found in chimpanzees and gorillas; HIV 2: confined primarily in West Africa, found in Sooty Mangabeys).

Genetic Research indicates that HIV originated in west-central Africa during the early twentieth century. AIDS was first recognized by the Centers for Disease Control and Preventions (CDC) in 1981 and its cause—HIV infection—was identified in the early part of the decade. Since its discovery, AIDS has caused nearly 30 million deaths (as of 2009). As of 2010, approximately 34 million people are living with HIV globally. AIDS is considered a pandemic.

3. HIV/AIDS and women:

HIV/AIDS is no longer striking primarily men. Today, more than 20 years into the epidemic, women account for nearly half the 40 million people living with HIV worldwide. Each minute one young woman acquires HIV, accounting for 22% of all new HIV infections. Globally, young women aged 15–24 are most vulnerable to HIV, with infection rates twice as high as in young men, at 0.6%. This disparity is most pronounced in sub-Saharan Africa. In sub-Saharan Africa, 57 per cent of adults with HIV are women, and young women aged 15 to 24 are more than three times as likely to be infected as young men. Despite this alarming trend, women know less than men about how HIV/AIDS is transmitted and how to prevent infection, and what little they do know is often rendered useless by the discrimination and violence they face.

HIV is the leading cause of death among women of reproductive age. Gender inequalities, differential access to services, and sexual violence increase women’s vulnerability to HIV, and women, especially younger women, are biologically more susceptible to HIV. 4. Special signs and symptoms of HIV/AIDS in women

Many people have no symptoms when they first become infected with HIV. Some people may have a flu-like illness (including fever, headache, tiredness and enlarged lymph nodes) within a month or two after exposure to the virus. These symptoms usually disappear within a week to a month and are often mistaken for those of another viral infection.

More severe symptoms may not appear for 10 years or more. Even during the asymptomatic period, the virus is active inside a person’s body and can be passed to another person.

As the immune system worsens, a variety of complications start to occur. For many people, the first...

References: CDC (March, 2013), Fact Sheet on HIV Among Women, Retrieved from:www.cdc.gov/hiv
CDC (August 2008) Fact Sheet: HIV/AIDS among Women Retrieved from:
The World Bank (February, 2009), HIV/AIDS in Bangladesh: Dhaka: The World Bank
UNAIDS (2012), Women out loud: How women living with HIV will help the world end AIDS, USA: Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS)
UNAIDS / UNFPA / UNIFEM (2004), Women and HIV/AIDS: Confronting the Crisis, Kolkata: UNAIDS, UNFPA and UNIFEM
UNFPA (2003), The impact of HIV/AIDS: A Population and development perspective, New York: UNFPA
UNICEF (March, 2009), HIV and AIDS in Bangladesh, Dhaka: UNICEF
UNODC HIV/AIDS Programme (July 2006), HIV/AIDS prevention and care for female injecting drug users, Australia: UNODC, V.06-55812—July 2006—500
World Health Organization. (2004b). Violence against women and HIV/AIDS: Critical intersections. Information Bulletin Series, 1, 1-9.
World Health Organization. (2005). WHO multi-country study on women’s health and domestic violence against women. Geneva, SZ: Author. Retrieved from http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2005/924159358X_eng.pdf
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