Hiv /Aids

Topics: AIDS, HIV, Antiretroviral drug Pages: 31 (4972 words) Published: June 7, 2013
HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)
infection has now spread to every
country in the world. Approximately
40 million people are currently living
with HIV infection, and an estimated
25 million have died from this
disease. The scourge of HIV has been
particularly devastating in
sub-Saharan Africa, but infection
rates in other countries remain high.
the United States, approximately 1
million people are currently infected.
Meaning of terms: HIV stands for the
human immunodeficiency virus. It is
one of a group of viruses known as
retroviruses. After getting into the
body, the virus kills or damages cells
of the body's immune system. The
body tries to keep up by making new
cells or trying to contain the virus,
but eventually the HIV wins out and
progressively destroys the body's
ability to fight infections and certain
AIDS stands for the acquired
immunodeficiency syndrome. It is
caused by HIV
and occurs when the virus has
destroyed so much of the body's
defenses that
immune-cell counts fall to critical
levels or certain life-threatening
infections or cancers develop.
Kenya’s AIDS epidemic is extremely
widespread. Over recent years, the
annual number of AIDS-related
deaths has been steadily increasing.
In fact,
the death rate has doubled since 1999.
The infection rate is far higher in
urban areas and most new infections
are occurring among youth, especially
young women ages 15 to 24 and men
under 30. Statistics that illustrate the
severity of AIDS within the country
- Adult (15-49) HIV Prevalence Rate:
- Adults living with HIV: 1,100,000
- Adults and children living with
HIV: 1,200,000
- Cases on ARVs: 460,000
Globally, 85% of HIV transmission is
heterosexual. In the United States,
approximately one-third of new
diagnoses appear to be related to
heterosexual transmission. Male-to-
male sexual contact still accounts for
approximately half of new diagnoses
in the U.S. Intravenous drug
use< http://
articlekey=58907 >contributes to the
remaining cases. Because the
diagnosis may occur years
after infection, it is likely that a
higher proportion of recent infections
are due to heterosexual transmission.
Infections in women are increasing.
Worldwide, 42% of people with HIV
HIV/AIDS Transmission
HIV is transmitted when the virus
enters the body, usually by injecting
infected cells or semen. There are
several possible ways in which the
can enter.
- Most commonly, HIV infection is
spread by having sex with an infected
The virus can enter the body
through the lining of the vagina,
penis, rectum, or mouth during sex.
- HIV frequently spreads among
injection-drug users who share
needles or
syringes that are contaminated with
blood from an infected person.
- Women can transmit HIV to their
babies during pregnancy< http://
main/art.asp?articlekey=58752 >or
birth, when infected maternal cells
enter the baby's circulation.
- HIV can be spread in health-care
settings through accidental needle
sticks or contact with contaminated
- Very rarely, HIV spreads through
transfusion of contaminated blood or
blood components. Blood products
are now tested to minimize this risk.
tissues or organs from an infected
person are transplanted, the
recipient may acquire HIV. Donors
are now tested for HIV to minimize
- People who already have a
sexually transmitted disease, such as
syphilis< http://
main/art.asp?articlekey=58878 >,
genital herpes< http://
main/art.asp?articlekey=58867 >,
chlamydial< http://
articlekey=58861 >infection,
gonorrhea< http://
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