History4b REVIEW Final

Topics: Protestant Reformation, Catholic Church, Christianity Pages: 8 (2376 words) Published: April 28, 2015
=Feel free to add other terms on here!

Black Death:
Where: began in Mediterranean due to trade, expanded throughout rest of Europe When: 1346-53
Who: Everyone in Europe except Milan and Poland
Significance: Anti-semitism increased as Jewish population was blamed, caused economic gains for survivors Dance of Death: theme fascinated by artists, actors, and performers- procession of people of every age/social status parading to their graves Also in the grand scheme of things, the black death was actually pretty scary because nothing like this had ever happened before in all of time and history.

The Hundred Years’ War 1337-1453
Where: Europe
When: 1347-1453
Who: England and France
Significance: Joan of Arc (1412-1431), claiming visions of God, inspired French in counter attack led to the creation of the powerful new state Burgundy in 1369 (ended in 1477) led to the rise of heavy artillery and tight battle formations

The Great Schizm
Where: Europe
What: split in Europe revolving around two separate popes, resolved by the Council of Constance (1414-1418) where Martin V was elected pope When: 1378-1417
Significance: idea of purgatory began, remission of sin for good works purgatory as a place to wait until sins fully purged

Ciompi Revolt:
Where: Florence
When: 1378 (late 14th century)
Who: By wool carders known as Ciompi, demanding voice in Guilds Significance: Arises from plague and population migration, didn’t have lasting impact, reinforces status quo and power of elites

Fall of Constantinople:
Where: Constantinople
When: 1453
Who: Ottomans under Mehmed II
Significance: Fall of Byzantine empire, end of Crusader period (and ideology)

1492 (Granada):
Where: Spain, ending with defeat of Granada
When: 1492
Who: Ferdinand II and Isabella I
Significance: centralized and consolidated royal powers, unification of Christians against Muslims

Martin Luther:
Where: Germany
When: (1483-1536)
He was a lawyer and a priest.
Believed that salvation was found through faith alone and that god's mercy was as strong as his just. He translated the bible from latin to german so that the common people could read and interpret it for themselves. Luther said “Freedom of a Christian” he meant mental freedom but peasants interpreted it as physical freedom. led to the peasant's war from 1524-1525.

Luther did not approve of the peasants actions and called for the nobles to stop the rebellion.

Henry VIII:
Six marriages which Pope Excommunicated him for
Separation from Roman Catholic Church to form Church of England His disagreements with the Pope led to his separation of the Church of England from papal authority, with himself, as King, as the Supreme Head of the Church of England, and to the Dissolution of the Monasteries known for his radical changes to the English Constitution, ushering in the theory of the divine right of kings to England, thus initiating the English Reformation which greatly expanded Royal Power

Calvin (Calvinism):
John Calvin: French Theologian and pastor during Protestant Reformation Principle figure in Calvinism (form of Reformation)
part of second wave of reform
Major belief: predestination- the doctrine that all events have been willed by God god only saved “the Elect”
Believed God only communicated knowledge of himself through certain sources: 1. Jesus Christ: mediator between God and People
2. Bible: (Most important)- Divine knowledge, Reformed theologians emphasize the Bible as a uniquely important means by which God communicates with people. People gain knowledge of God from the Bible which cannot be gained in any other way. Speculation about anything which God has not revealed through his Word is not warranted Significance: In a time of Church corruption, Reformists, especially Calvinists believed the word of God was tainted by men speculating things that were not taken from the above sources, believed that the Church was practicing false indoctrination and...
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