History: Vedic Age

Topics: Vedas, Rigveda, Sanskrit Pages: 20 (6540 words) Published: September 19, 2013
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"Veda" redirects here. For other uses, see Veda (disambiguation). The Vedas (Sanskrit वेदाः véda, "knowledge") are a large body of texts originating in ancient India. Composed in Vedic Sanskrit, the texts constitute the oldest layer ofSanskrit literature and the oldest scriptures of Hinduism.[1][2] The Vedas are apauruṣeya ("not of human agency").[3][4][5] They are supposed to have been directly revealed, and thus are called śruti ("what is heard"),[6][7] distinguishing them from other religious texts, which are called smṛti ("what is remembered"). The Vedic texts or śruti are organized around four canonical collections of metrical material known as Saṃhitās, of which the first three are related to the performance of yajna (sacrifice) in historical Vedic religion: 1. The Rigveda, containing hymns to be recited by the hotṛ; 2. The Yajurveda, containing formulas to be recited by the adhvaryu or officiating priest; 3. The Samaveda, containing formulas to be sung by the udgātṛ. 4. The fourth is the Atharvaveda, a collection of spells and incantations, apotropaic charms and speculative hymns.[8] The individual verses contained in these compilations are known as mantras. Some selected Vedic mantras are still recited at prayers, religious functions and other auspicious occasions in contemporary Hinduism. The various Indian philosophies and sects have taken differing positions on the Vedas. Schools of Indian philosophy which cite the Vedas as their scriptural authority are classified as "orthodox" (āstika). Other traditions, notably Buddhism and Jainism, which did not regard the Vedas as authorities are referred to by traditional Hindu texts as "heterodox" or "non-orthodox" (nāstika) schools.[9][10] In addition to Buddhism and Jainism, Sikhism[11][12] and Brahmoism,[13] many non-Brahmin Hindus in South India [14] do not accept the authority of the Vedas. Certain South Indian Brahmin communities such as Iyengars consider the Tamil Divya Prabandham or writing of theAlvar saints as equivalent to the Vedas.[15] Contents * 1 Etymology and usage * 2 Chronology * 3 Categories of Vedic texts * 3.1 Vedic Sanskrit corpus * 3.2 Shruti literature * 4 Vedic schools or recensions * 5 The four Vedas * 5.1 Rigveda * 5.2 Yajurveda * 5.3 Samaveda * 5.4 Atharvaveda * 6 Brahmanas * 7 Vedanta * 8 In post-Vedic literature * 8.1 Vedanga * 8.2 Parisista * 8.3 Puranas * 8.4 Upaveda * 8.5 Buddhist and Jain views * 8.5.1 Buddhism * 8.5.2 Jainism * 8.6 "Fifth" and other Vedas * 9 Western Indology * 10 See also * 11 Notes * 12 References * 13 Literature * 14 External links| Etymology and usage

The Sanskrit word véda "knowledge, wisdom" is derived from the root vid- "to know". This is reconstructed as being derived from the Proto-Indo-European root*u̯eid-, meaning "see" or "know".[16] As a noun, the word appears only in a single instance in the Rigveda, in RV 8.19.5, translated by Griffith as "ritual lore": yáḥ samídhā yá âhutī / yó védena dadâśa márto agnáye / yó námasā svadhvaráḥ "The mortal who hath ministered to Agni with oblation, fuel, ritual lore, and reverence, skilled in sacrifice."[17] The noun is from Proto-Indo-European *u̯eidos, cognate to Greek (ϝ)εἶδος "aspect", "form" . Not to be confused is the homonymous 1st and 3rd person singular perfect tense véda, cognate to Greek (ϝ)οἶδα (w)oida"I know". Root cognates are Greek ἰδέα, English wit, etc., Latin videō "I see", etc.[18] In English, the term Veda is often used loosely to refer to the Samhitas (collection of mantras, or chants) of the four canonical Vedas (Rigveda, Yajurveda, Samaveda and Atharvaveda). The Sanskrit term veda as a common noun means "knowledge", but can also be used to refer to fields of study unrelated to liturgy or ritual, e.g. in agada-veda "medical science", sasya-veda "science of agriculture" or sarpa-veda "science of...

References: * Apte, Vaman Shivram (1965), The Practical Sanskrit Dictionary (4th revised & enlarged ed.), Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-0567-4.
* Avari, Burjor (2007), India: The Ancient Past, London: Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-35616-9
* Flood, Gavin (1996), An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-43878-0
* Flood, Gavin, ed. (2003), The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism, Malden, MA: Blackwell, ISBN 1-4051-3251-5
* Holdrege, Barbara A
* MacDonell, Arthur Anthony (2004), A History of Sanskrit Literature, Kessinger Publishing, ISBN 1-4179-0619-7
* Michaels, Axel (2004), Hinduism: Past and Present, Princeton University Press, ISBN 0-691-08953-1
* Monier-Williams, Monier, ed. (2006), Monier-Williams Sanskrit Dictionary, Nataraj Books, ISBN 1-881338-58-4.
* Muir, John (1861), Original Sanskrit Texts on the Origin and Progress of the Religion and Institutions of India, Williams and Norgate
* Müller, Max (1891), Chips from a German Workshop, New York: C
* Radhakrishnan, Sarvepalli; Moore, Charles A., eds. (1957), A Sourcebook in Indian Philosophy (12th Princeton Paperback ed.), Princeton University Press, ISBN 0-691-01958-4.
* Smith, Brian K., Canonical Authority and Social Classification: Veda and "Varṇa" in Ancient Indian Texts-, History of Religions, The University of Chicago Press (1992), 103-125.
* Sullivan, B. M. (Summer 1994), "The Religious Authority of the Mahabharata: Vyasa and Brahma in the Hindu Scriptural Tradition", Journal of the American Academy of Religion 62 (1): 377–401,DOI:10.1093/jaarel/LXII.2.377.
* Witzel, Michael (ed.) (1997), Inside the Texts, Beyond the Texts. New Approaches to the Study of the Vedas, Harvard Oriental Series, Opera Minora vol. 2, Cambridge: Harvard University Press
* Zaehner, R
* J. Gonda, Vedic Literature: Saṃhitās and Brāhmaṇas, A History of Indian literature. Vol. 1, Veda and Upanishads (1975), ISBN 978-3-447-01603-2.
* J. A. Santucci, An Outline of Vedic Literature (1976).
* S. Shrava, A Comprehensive History of Vedic Literature — Brahmana and Aranyaka Works, Pranava Prakashan (1977).
* Vishva Bandhu, Bhim Dev, S. Bhaskaran Nair (eds.), Vaidika-Padānukrama-Koṣa: A Vedic Word-Concordance, Vishveshvaranand Vedic Research Institute, Hoshiarpur, 1963–1965, revised edition 1973-1976.
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