Mahatma Gandhi led India to independence from under the corrupt rule of the British. The British government system, The Indian Civil Service, excluded Indians from positions rendering them without say in their own government. Additionally, the British passed many laws including the prohibiting the making of salt and purchase of only British cloth. Indians were forced to pay tax on common foods such as grain and salt. Mahatma Gandhi created a sense of nationalism or patriotism, and formed the “Quit India” campaign. Using civil disobedience, purposely defying an unjust law, and non-violent resistance, peaceful tactics, such as fasting.
Nelson Mandela similarly led Africa to its freedom from apartheid created by the National Party. The apartheid divided and separated the Africans into four categories: White, Black, Colored, and Asian. Analogous to the Indian Civil Service the National Party striped all races except whites of their say in government such as voting rights and positions in political offices. Non whites were additionally taxed like the Indians and paid more than Whites. Laws were imposed on the Africans similar to the Indians which restricted marriage, ownership of land, and business. Nelson Mandela achieved independence by becoming a radical member of the African National Congress which originally held peaceful protests like Gandhi, but transitioned into violence with gained Africa’s freedom. Because of Mandela’s crucial role in African independence he was elected president of South Africa.