List the performance elements and understand their role in both ritual and theatre: time, place, participants (players, audience), scenario (agenda/goal/text/rules), clothing (uniform, costume, mask, makeup), sound (speech, music), movement (gesture, pantomime, dance), and function or purpose. Can be clock or fictional time, places vary (designed to meet needs), rituals might take place in one space or they might involve a procession with portions of the ritual being performed at various places along the way, elements can be combined, ritual and theatre employ the same basic elements as other human activities do but have diff purposes in mind and choose the particular form needed 4 each element and then organize them to achieve their purpose. Rituals reflect society’s understanding of its relationships to the powers that govern its well-being and its own interrelationships (include elements that entertain and give pleasure). Much that is found in ritual, also in theatre (must be actors/directors, both use performing and viewing areas, may use same elements but the distinction between them ultimately depends on their functions).
Explain the most significant theories of the origins of theatre: most widely known theory is championed by anthropologists in the late 19th and early 20th centuries that envisions theatre as emerging out of myth and ritual (society becomes aware of forces that appear to influence or control its food supply and well-being, connection between actions performed by group and results it desires leads to repeat/refine/formalizing those actions into rituals, stories/myths grow up around a ritual, performers dress up, act out the myths. (more info pg 2). Storytelling-relating and listening to stories are seen as fundamental human pleasures (pantomime/impersonation/each role assumed by diff people), recallings can be elaborate, dance and song, imitate animals. Can be inspired by a great many