One significant physical geographic factor that contributed to the development of Mesopotamia was the location of, and access to, the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers, as well as their tributaries. Located in a region known as the “Fertile Crescent”, Mesopotamia was able to utilize these rivers for transportation and irrigation of crops. As a result of flooding by the Euphrates, large silt deposits provided rich soil and promoted the cultivation of emmer, barley, beans, olives, grapes and flax. In turn, these harvested crops provided not just food for the farmers but also served as a trade medium with nomadic tribes in the area. Because of the availability of water and rich soils, the area was attractive to settlement and communities developed. The clay soil also was an excellent material for the production of bricks which were used to build more permanent structures. In order to divert the waters, irrigation canals were dug and dams were built. The need for cooperation between individuals in order to complete some of the larger irrigation and flood control projects led to the growth of government and the establishment of laws. None of this would have been possible without the presence of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. B.
The diffusion of the chariot between societies came about primarily due to its primary designed purpose. The original purpose of the chariot was as a moving platform to insert and extract soldiers (primarily archers and javelin throwers) onto the battlefield. Horses are believed to have originated on the Eurasian steppes and had no practical human use other than as a food source. They were acquired from nomadic tribes by city/states of Mesopotamia and were domesticated solely to pull chariots. Mounted soldiers did not appear until much later in history and the chariot was an advanced
weapon of war long before their adoption. Chariots were not utilized as a general conveyance by members of the public and charioteers were viewed as...
References: (Evans & Michaud, 2013) Evans, J., & Michaud, K. (2013). Themes and Applications in U.S. and World History (4th ed.). Asheville, NC: Soomo Publishing. Retrieved from webtexts.com
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