1. Write a short history of the Delhi Sultanate in India from its founding to the end of the Khalji domination.
The foundation of Arab power in India proper were laid by the ruler of Ghazni in Central Asia, Sultan Mahmud (997 CE), who invaded and conquered the Punjab between 1001 and 1014. The empire of Ghazni began to fall to pieces under the later successors of Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni. Muhammed of Ghur, who became the governor of the province of Ghazni in 1173. Muhammed began his Indian campaign while still a governor of this province. In 1181, he conquered the Punjab from the Ghaznavids, which opened the way for more conquests in India. They were unable to hold onto their empire in the face of the rising power of the Princes of Ghur. Muhammed of Ghur was assassinated on March 15, 1206. His death marked the advent of the Slave dynasty and the consolidation of Muslim power over Northern India.
The Muslim invasions into India had ultimately resulted in the establishment of Delhi Sultanate which existed from A.D. 1206 to 1526. Five different dynasties – the Slave, Khalji, Tughlaq, Sayyids and Lodis – ruled under the Delhi Sultanate. Not only they extended their rule over North India, but also they penetrated into the Deccan and South India. Their rule in India resulted in far-reaching changes in society, administration and cultural life. The concept of equality in Islam and Muslim traditions reached its climax in the history of South Asia when slaves were raised to the status of Sultan. The Slave Dynasty ruled the Sub-continent for about 84 years. It was the first Muslim dynasty that ruled India. Qutub-ud-din Aibak, a slave of Muhammad Ghori, who became the ruler after the death of his master, founded the Slave Dynasty. He was a great builder who built the majestic 238 feet high stone tower known as Qutub Minar in Delhi. the next important king of the Slave dynasty was Shams-ud-din Iltutmush, who himself was a slave of Qutub-ud-din Aibak. Iltutmush...
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