A systematic way of exploring texts;
It looks at the languages of texts and tries to explain how the language creates meaning, style and effect It also explain how readers interact with the language of texts so as to explain how we understand and are affected by texts when we read them
1. In the 19th century: author
in Britain (UK) : text (Ivor A Richards & Wiliam Empson)
text + how readers were affected (psychological aspects in readers)*** Practical Criticism
In the early in the twentieth century: text > authors
2. Practical Criticism is matched by a similar critical movement: New Criticism (almostly exclusively on the description of literary – as independent aesthetic objects)
1. emphasis on language of the text rather than its author
2. assume that criticism needs the accounts of important literature works based on the intuitional reading-outcomes of trained and aesthetically sensitive critics 3. did not analyse the text language very much, but pay very closed attention to the language text when reading them, describinh hoe they understanding them and affecting by them Differences
1. pay more attention to the psychological aspects in readers 1. almost based exclusively on the description of literary works, as an independent aesthetic objects
4. About 100 years later: such approach is still very useful, and give rise to the kind of critical essay which writers make claim on: (Claim and Quote Approach)
how it affects;
then quote a textual sample to illustrate the view argued for.
5. In general, the claim and quote approach is not enough to argue for a particular view of text, ∵ logical gaps often exists
∵ intuition is not enough
6. Stylisticians also use the same kind of approach on non-literary texts.
7. Another important strand in developing Stylistics:
The Russian Formalist, (Moscow)
- IA Richard...
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