HISTORY OF PHARMACY
The evolution of the profession of pharmacy
can be divided into five historical periods:
1. ANCIENT ERA-The beginning of time to
2. EMPIRIC ERA-1600-1940
3. INDUSTRIALIZATION ERA-1940-1970
4. PATIENT CARE ERA-1970-present
5. BIOTECHNOLOGY AND GENETIC
ENGINEERING ERA-The new horizon
Used leaves, mud, and cool water to stop bleeding and heal
They used these methods by observing how animals heal their
Documented experiences of healing onto clay tablets which
provided the earliest known written record.
In Babylonia the earliest record of the practice of pharmacy by the priest, pharmacist, and physician was kept. This is where the science of drugs, organized pharmacy and medicine had its beginnings.
Chinese used herbs
Hippocrates-The Father of Medicine
Theophrastus-The Father of Botany-early scientist.
Mithridates-Father of Toxicology-Studied the adverse effects of plants.
Dioscorides-Father of Pharmacology. During the
Cosmos and Damien-Saints of Pharmacy and
Medicine-twin s who represent the closeness of
medicine and pharmacy. Doctors would also
find medicines to treat patients.
After the fall of the Roman Empire, the division
of pharmacy and medicine evolved. Three
major advances in pharmacy occurred at this
time: 1. The formulary –a continuation of the
documentation of the knowledge of specific drug
information to be used by pharmacists. 2.
Dosage form-drugs were no longer harvested
from herb gardens. They were incorporated into
The Pharmacopeia became a regulatory tool for
Benjamin Franklin started the first hospital in 1751. It
had a pharmacy and the first hospital pharmacist was
1821 The Philadelphia College of Pharmacy was
William Proctor-The father of American Pharmacy. He
devoted his time and attention to the advancement
of pharmacy. He owned an apothecary shop.
The major contribution of pharmacists to science was
in the area of chemistry.
The development of manufacturing pharmacy
began. Rapid mass production of medicines
Standardization, biologically prepared products,
complex chemical synthesis, and increased
use of parenteral medications were all part of
THE PATIENT CARE ERA
The beginning of this era concentrated on
research to develop new medicines.
Research on medication s was done.
New drugs were developed. Had a lot of
adverse reactions to drugs so drug review
and monitoring resulted. Pharmacists
began to take a more hands on role in
dispensing medications and patient
THE FUTURE OF
Research in the area of biotechnology and gene
therapy is being conducted. Medications are
being produced through recombinant DNA
New therapies for cancer, anemia, and hepatitis
are being introduced.
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