History Of Data Communication

Topics: Bell System, ASCII, AT&T Pages: 5 (1345 words) Published: November 26, 2014

COEN 3193

Assignment No. 1
Brief History of Data Communication

Submitted by:
Camille A. Bonito

Submitted to:
Florinda H. Oquindo


Telegraph defined from the Greek... TELE = Afar GRAPHOS = Write 1809
First telegraph in Bavaria. Samuel Soemmering. Used 35 wires with gold electrodes in water. Detection at distant end 2000 feet away was by the amount of gas caused by electrolysis. 1828
First telegraph in the USA. Harrison Dyar sent electrical sparks through chemically treated paper tape to burn dots and dashes. 1840 
Samuel F.B. Morse and Alfred Vail were issued a patent for the first practical telegraph based on electromagnets. Relays were used every 10 miles to repeat the signals. In Morse coding there are 11 different characters between American and European codes. 1845

Samuel Morse and Alfred Vail introduce a Morse printer that uses ink and electromagnets to print dots and dashes on paper tape. 1856
David Hughes, a music professor in Kentucky uses a vibrating spring tuned to a specific pitch to synchronize the sending and receiving teleprinter with use a code invented by him. 1865
Telegraph becomes the greatest means of communications ever. Over 83,000 miles of wire in the USA alone dedicated to telegraph. At the same time development of the telephone begins. 1874
J.M.E. Baudot in France invents the multiplex telegraph system where at least 4 stations can transmit simultaneously (actually serially) through the use of a distributor. The transmitters are like a miniature piano with five keys. Each combination of keys equals a character. Paper tape is used as the printed media. 1880

Baudot's 5 unit code forms the basis for the european standard CCITT International Telegraph Alphabet No. 1 (ITA-1) 1901 
Donald Murray improves the 5 unit code with new character assignments and adds two shifts. This becomes the basis of CCITT Alphabet No. 2 (ITA-2) which is still in use one hundred years later. 1902-1907

Charles Krum perfects the 5 unit ITA-2 code with a start-stop sequence to allow teletypewriters to be used in commercial applications. One coded character is 7.42 unit intervals. 1906 
The Morkrum Company was established with its ownership shared by Charles Krum and the Morton family. 1908
The Morkrum Company developed its first commercial printer. A field trial was conducted with the Alton Railroad. The trial was successful, but the Alton Railroad made no purchase. 1910
The Postal Telegraph purchased the first commercial Morkrum equipment. In 1912, Western Union (having split from Western Electric) purchased the same device. Although these M10 units were mechanically successful, none were commercially successful until 1925. 1915

The Associated Press adopted Morkrum M10 printing telegraph equipment to provide simultaneous service to competitive newspapers in New York City. 1918

Morkrum Company operation was expanded from its "garage" type facility. Employees numbered "over 200". 1921

The M11 type-wheel tape printer, went into production. It constituted the first commercially acceptable and successful unit, The M11 was manufactured through 1927 with 883 machines being produced. 1922

The M12, a type-bar page printer with moving platen, was first marketed. Previous to 1922, printing telegraph was limited largely to commercial-telegraph and railroad uses. The M12 page printer opened the way to general business uses. Substantial numbers of this unit were sold through 1930, with quantity, too, being sold as late as 1943. A total of 11,899 M12 units were sold. 1930

The M15 type-bar page printer with stationary platen was introduced. This machine soon became the "bread and butter" unit of Teletype, reaching its peak output during WWII. Through 1954, about 200,000 were sold. A large percentage of Bell System Teletypewriter Exchange (TWX) stations were of the M15 vintage. 1930

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