History Notes Class 10

Good Essays
The First War of Independence: The Revolt of 1857
*Political Causes:-
1) Lord Dalhousie’s Policy of ‘the Doctrine of Lapse’:-if the ruler of a subordinate state died without a heir , his adopted son was not allowed to occupy the throne and the state was annexed to the British Empire in India. Lord Dalhousie annexed the states of Jhansi, Satara and Nagpur.
2) Ill treatment of Nana Sahib and Rani of Jhansi:Baji Rao II: The last Peshwa adopted Nana Sahib as his son who was denied access to the annual pension of his father. Rani of Jhansi Laxmi Bai was also not allowed to adopt a son.
3) Annexation of Awadh on the pretext of misgovernment in 1856.
4) Disrespect shown to the Mughal Emperor: (i) Lord Dalhousie had insulted the Emperor by asking him and his successors to leave the Red Fort in Delhi. (ii) Lord Canning declared that the title of the Mughal emperor would be abolished after the death of Bahadur Shah and his fort would be takrn over by the British.
5) Disbanding the armies of the annexed states: as a result thousands of families lost their means of livelihood.
6) Unpopular administration: The British abolished few Zamindars,and taluqdars which created suspicion among them. The British administration in India was corrupt and inefficient.
Social and Religious causes:-
1) Fear of the conversion: (i) The Missionaries showed them the lure of money, jobs and honour for accepting Christianity.(ii) The prisoners who accepted Christianity were released. (iii) The study of Bible was made compulsory in the institutions established by missionaries in the backward areas.
2) Introduction of new laws: (i) Lord Bentinck prohibited the practice of Sati in 1829. (ii)The Religious Disabilities Act of 1856 also decided that noone would be deprived of his hereditary property on the ground of changing his religion. (iii) In 1856, the Widow Remarriage Act was passed by Lord Canning. (iv) The government taxed lands belonging to the temples and the mosques or charitable

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