Was the British rule in India an older form of globalization today, due to how it globalization affects the world beyond its intended purposes? It is difficult not to mention the term colonization whilst debating about how globalization has impacted our world, beyond its intended purposes. Based on international strategies, globalization is a process that aims to expand business operations on a worldwide level. (“How Globalization Affects Developed Countries”-Investopia) The purpose of colonization was “...to open markets and obtain raw materials…” (“Colonialism”- International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences); the British Empire first became involved with India because of trade. (Rees, pg. 1) The aims of colonization and globalization are similar, as they are two forms of being involved with trading internationally; however they affected a whole lot more than just trade. Furthermore, colonization and globalization has impacted the world both positively and negatively, crossing the boundaries of opening and expanding business operations on a worldwide level (being involved with trade). The British Empire in India and the production of “Nike” items are two examples that demonstrate the impacts. A strong example that supports this conception of colonization being an older form of globalization is when the British colonized India during the 19th to 20th century. The British Empire which took place in India during the time period of 1858 and 1947 became involved with India in the first place because of trade, and they wanted a share of India’s cotton and calico, muslins, chintzes, pepper, indigo and spices. (Rees, pg. 1) The figures (data) of the increasing and decreasing of the exports between India and Britain (from the information that Parliament received about the different types of trade that included the British East India Company in the beginning of the 19th century) illustrate how the British rule had an impact on the Indian textile Industry. The figures from the 1700s show that India had a lead in the textile trade, nevertheless, as Britain took control of India, around the time of the Industrial Revolution in Britain, the maximized productions and the more efficient and cheaper clothing of Britain dominated the Indian cloth industry. Therefore, one can argue that whilst the British tried to trade with India, they had also destroyed Indian industries, which impacted India negatively. On the other hand, the British impacted India negatively, they also benefitted India. The British may have destroyed most Indian industries, but the British rule also brought in many job opportunities for educated Indians in the government. (“Modern History Sourcebook: Dadabhai Naoroji: The Benefits of British Rule, 1871”-Fordham University) Additionally, the British Empire brought law and order and most importantly, technology with them and the British are the reasons why India is the most populous democratic state in the world which uses a common language in legal matter with: an immense length of railway lines in the Indian subcontinent, a proper sanitation system and an excellent university system without the colonization. (“Modern History Sourcebook: Dadabhai Naoroji: The Benefits of British Rule, 1871”-Fordham University) Lastly, the British rule affected India and ended up being involved with India for more than trade, and that is why colonization is an older form of globalization today. Next, another example of the effects of modern globalization that can also agree upon the relationship between colonization and globalization is how the items of the brand “Nike” are produced. Nike is a brand of athletic shoes and clothing, however, Nike does not produce their own products. (“Facts about Nike Sweatshops”- eHow) Instead, the company contracts with manufacturing facilities located throughout the world. Nike shoes are made in countries like China, Indonesia, and Vietnam, where it is illegal for workers to organize, and where wage rates are some of the lowest in the world. (“Facts about Nike Sweatshops”- eHow) The average pay at a Nike factory situated in Vietnam is $54 a month, which is almost three times the minimum wage for a state-owned enterprise. (“The Noble Feat of Nike”- YaleGlobal Online) The average pay for one month is $54, whereas one Nike shoe costs around $100-$200. (“The Noble Feat of Nike”- YaleGlobal Online) Moreover, this is a form of globalization as Nike products are made in counties with low wage rates, and that is so that the company does not have to pay that much for producing great amounts of products. This form of globalization relates to colonization because its intended purpose is to produce as many shoes and clothing as possible in order to succeed in the industrial world, however, they are affecting the lives of people (the workers who produce the Nike products in factories and possibly their families as well). (“Facts about Nike Sweatshops”- eHow) Nevertheless, the production of Nike shoes benefits us as the buyers as it provides us with comfortable, strong and stylish footwear, but it passes the boundaries of just producing footwear for people and it affects a countless amount of people in the world. Globalization is a method to be global, worldwide, international and the main purpose of it is to expand business operations on a worldwide level. (“How Globalization Affects Developed Countries”-Investopia) The purpose of globalization is very alike to the purpose of colonization which was in order to open markets and obtain raw materials through trading. Moreover, trade was the reason why the British were involved in India in the first place; however, the British affected India more than through trade. The British destroyed most Indian industries at that time however also introduced several job opportunities for educated Indian in the government. (“Modern History Sourcebook: Dadabhai Naoroji: The Benefits of British Rule, 1871”-Fordham University) The British also brought law and order and most importantly, technology with them. Additionally, the railway lines in the Indian subcontinent would not have been possible without the colonization. Next, Nike is an example of a form of globalization as it is a brand with branches of factories around the world (mostly in Asia); however, it has affected the lives of the workers due to the low wage whilst it has tried to succeed in the industrial world by producing more products and paying less. (“The Noble Feat of Nike”- YaleGlobal Online) Therefore, it can be argued that colonization is an older form of globalization because of their similar aims, however also because both colonization and globalization has affected the world, beyond the boundaries of their intended purposes. MLA Citation (Bibliography):
1. "Colonialism." International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. 1968. Encyclopedia.com. 29 Oct. 2012<http://www.encyclopedia.com>. 2. Pologeorgis, Nicolas. "How Globalization Affects Developed Countries." How Globalization Affects Developed Countries. N.p., 22 Apr. 2012. Web. 04 Nov. 2012. <http://www.investopedia.com/articles/economics/10/globalization-developed-countries.asp>. 3. Rees, Rosemary, and Martin Collier. India 1900-47. [Oxford.]: Heinemann, 2006. Print. 4. "Internet History Sourcebooks." Internet History Sourcebooks. N.p., July 1998. Web. 04 Nov. 2012. <http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1871britishrule.asp>.