The Stolen Generations (also known as Stolen children) were the children of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander descent who were removed from their families by the Australian Federal and State government agencies and church missions, under acts of their respective parliaments. The removals occurred in the period between approximately 1909 and 1969, although in some places children were still being taken until the 1970s. Documentary evidence, such as newspaper articles and reports to parliamentary committees, suggest a range of rationales. Motivations evident include child protection, beliefs that given their catastrophic population decline after white contact that Aboriginal people would "die out", and a fear of miscegenation by full-blooded Aboriginal people. Terms such as "stolen" were used in the context of taking children from their families – the Hon P. McGarry, a member of the Parliament of New South Wales, objected to the Aborigines Protection Amending Act 1915 which then enabled the Aborigines' Protection Board to remove Aboriginal children from their parents without having to establish that they were in any way neglected or mistreated; McGarry described the policy as "steal[ing] the child away from its parents". In 1924, in the Adelaide Sun an article stated "The word 'stole' may sound a bit far-fetched but by the time we have told the story of the heart-broken Aboriginal mother we are sure the word will not be considered out of place." Indigenous Australians in most jurisdictions were "protected", effectively being wards of the State. The protection was done through each jurisdiction's Aboriginal Protection Board; in Victoria and Western Australia these boards were also responsible for applying what were known as Half-Caste Acts. More recent usage was Peter Read's 1981 publication of The Stolen Generations: The Removal of Aboriginal Children in New South Wales 1883 to 1969. The 1997 publication of Bringing Them Home – Report of the National Inquiry into the Separation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children from Their Families brought broader awareness of the Stolen Generations. The acceptance of the term in Australia is illustrated by 13 February 2008 formal apology to the Stolen Generations, led by Prime Minister Kevin Rudd, and passed by both houses of the Parliament of Australia. Previous apologies had been offered by State and Territory governments in the period 1997–2001. However, there remains opposition to acceptance of the validity of the term "Stolen Generations". This was illustrated by the former Prime Minister John Howard refusing to apologise and the then Minister for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Affairs, John Herron controversially disputing the usage in April 2000. Others who dispute the validity of the term include: Peter Howson, Minister for Aboriginal Affairs in 1971–72, Keith Windschuttle and Andrew Bolt Others argue against these critics, responding to Windschuttle and Bolt in particular. Contents [hide]
1 Emergence of the child removal policy
2 The policy in practice
3 Social impact on members of the Stolen Generations
4 Historical debates over the Stolen Generations
4.1 Genocide debate
5 Public awareness and recognition
6 Australian federal parliament apology
6.1 Stances on the proposed apology
6.2 Apology text
6.3 Opposition leader's parliamentary reply and reaction
6.4 Senate consideration
6.5 Reference in Pecan Summer
7 Legal status and compensation
7.1.1 Cubillo and Gunner
7.1.2 Bruce Trevorrow
8 Films and books
8.1 Lousy Little Sixpence
8.2 Rabbit-Proof Fence
8.4 Documentary Kanyini
8.6 Sally Morgan
8.7 Stolen by Jane Harrison
9 See also
9.1 Notable persons
11 External links
11.1 Bibliography and guides
11.2 Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission
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^ Robert Manne (February 2010). "Comment: Keith Windschuttle". The Monthly. Retrieved 6 March 2010.
^ Read, Peter (18 February 2008). "Don 't let facts spoil this historian 's campaign". The Australian. Retrieved 18 February 2008.
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^ Peatling, Stephanie (11 December 2007)
^ Lewis, Steve (27 January 2008). "Kevin Rudd racing to historic Aboriginal apology". Daily telegraph (Australia). Retrieved 27 January 2008.
^ Cubillo v Commonwealth of Australia (includes summary) (2001) FCA 1213 (31 August 2001).
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