History And Evolution Of Management Thought

Topics: Management, Project management, Management information system Pages: 23 (3139 words) Published: May 26, 2015
History and Evolution of Management Thought

Content:
Early Approaches to management
Classical Approach
Behavioral Approach
Quantitative Approach
Modern Approaches to management
Emerging approaches in management thought.
The changing nature of organizations and work, the drivers behind the changes, and the consequences for workers and the workplace “ENTERING AN ERA OF DYNAMIC ENGAGEMENT” Six different themes about management theory are emerging under the umbrella that we call dynamic engagement. six management practices that impact climate

Introduction
Management and organizations are products of their historical and social times and places. Thus, we can understand the evolution of management theory in terms of how people have wrestled with matters of relationships at particular times in history

Both theory and history are indispensable tools for managing contemporary organizations. A theory is a conceptual framework for organizing knowledge that provides a blueprint for various courses of action.

Early Approaches to Management
MAJOR CLASSIFICATION OF MANAGEMENT APPROACHES
First: Classical Approach
Forms the foundation for the field of management
The schools for management thoughts are:
1-Scientific Management
2-Administrative Theory
3-Bureaucratic Management

1-SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT-F.W. TAYLOR
Piece rate incentive system
Time and motion study
Major contributors:
Frederick Winslow Taylor
Frank and Lillian Gillbreth
Henry L.Gantt: Gantt scheduling chart-Henry Laurence Gantt

2-ADMINISTRATIVE THEORY- HENRY FAYOL
Technical
Commercial
Financial
Security
Accounting
Managerial

3-BUREAUCRATIC MANAGEMENT- MAX WEBER
Work specialization and division of labor
Abstract rules and regulations
Impersonality of managers
Hierarchy of organization structure

First: Classical Approach
First: Scientific Management
Early 1900s
It is defined as “that kind of management which conducts a business or affairs by standards established, by facts or truths gained through systematic observation, experiment, or reasoning.”

1-Frederick Winslow Taylor (1878)
“Father of scientific management”
Two major managerial practices:
Piece-rate incentive system
Time-and-motion study

2-Frank and Lillian Gillbreth (1868-1924)
Motion study involves finding out the best sequence and minimum number of motions needed to complete a task. Explore new ways for eliminating unnecessary motions and reducing work fatigue.

3-HENRY L.GANTT (1861-1919)
Well known for Task – and - bonus system -The Gantt chart
If the worker completed the work fast, i.e., in less than the standard time, he received a bonus. It is a Simple chart that compares actual and planned performances.

Limitations of Scientific Management
Do not focus on the management of an organization from a manager’s point of view. People were “rational” and were motivated primarily by the desire for material gain. It also ignored the human desire for job satisfaction.

First: Classical Approach
Second: Administrative Theory:
It focused on principles that could be used by managers to coordinate the internal activities of organizations. Henri Fayol (1841-1925)

Henri Fayol (1841-1925)
Fourteen principles:
1-Division of work
2-Authority and responsibility
3-Discipline
4-Unity of command
5-Unity of direction
6-Subordination of the individual interest to the general interest 7-Remuneration
8-Centralization
9-Scalar chain
10-Order
11-Equity
12-Stability
13-Initiative
14-Esprit de corps (team spirit)

First: Classical Approach
Third: Bureaucratic Management
Weber (1864-1920)
Characteristics of Weber’s ideal Bureaucracy:
Work specification and division of labor
Abstract rules and regulations
Impersonality of managers
Hierarchy of organization structure

Limitations of Bureaucratic Management and Administrative Theory Not universally applicable to today’s complex organizations. Fayol’s principles like that of...

References: http://www.wbdg.org/resources/chngorgwork.php
http://www.trainingmag.com/content/6-management-practices-affecting-workplace-climate
http://faculty.wwu.edu/dunnc3/rprnts.historyofmanagementthought.pdf
http://www.slideshare.net/chaimoreno/borderless-world
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