History and current thinking of management

Topics: Management, Operations research, Project management Pages: 8 (1041 words) Published: February 8, 2014
PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT

CH.2
Managing: History and
Current Thinking

3 BASIC APPROACHES TO
MANAGEMENT:
Classical Approach
 Behavioral Approach
 Management Science Approach


OTHER APPROACHES:
 The Contingency Approach
 The Systems Approach

THE CLASSICAL APPROACH

THE CLASSICAL APPROACH
Pioneers of Management Study
 “recommends that managers continually strive to
increase organizational efficiency to increase
production”
 Find the ‘one best way’
 Lower-level analysis: done by studying the jobs of
workers at the lower levels of organization, how
the task situation can be structured to get the
highest production from workers.
 Comprehensive Analysis: studying the
management function as a whole.


FREDERICK W. TAYLOR
Gave the concept of ‘Scientific Management’ –
increase worker efficiency by scientifically
designing jobs, his basic premise was that every
job had one best way to do it and that this way
should be discovered and put into operation.
 Bethlehem steel Co.
 Assumption that any workers work could be
reduced to a science
 Astounding results and increase in efficiency and
production
 Pioneered the Piece-Rate System


GILBRETHS:
‘Motion Study’ – reducing each job to the most
basic movements possible
 Each movement/motion is studied to determine
how much time the movement takes and how
necessary it is to performing the job
 Inefficient/unnecessary movements are
eliminated


HENRY L.GANTT:









Interested in increasing worker efficiency
Current tasks and piece rates were set according
to what had been done in the past, or on
somebody’s OPINION of what workers should do.
This led to inefficient tasks and unsatisfactory
piece rates
Gantt said this OPINION should be substituted
by EXACT SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE
Sought to improve systems/organizations through
task-scheduling innovation and the rewarding of
innovation





Gantt Charts: Still the scheduling tool most
commonly used by modern managers. This chart
shows what work was scheduled for specific time
periods, how much of this work has been completed,
and by whom it was done.
Rewarding Innovation: You should be more humane,
do not be a slave-driver. When you ask someone to
perform work, make it to their advantage to do so, do
not ask unreasonable or impossible.
Gave the concept of a ‘Bonus’ pay in addition to piece
rate, for exceeding the daily production quota.
Believed in worker compensation that corresponded to
overproduction (bonus)

HENRI FAYOL:
Comprehensive Analysis
 Pioneer of Administrative Theory
 He gave the FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT –
Planning, Organizing, Commanding, Coordinating, and
Controlling.
 Gave 14 General Principles of Management:
1.
Division of Work
2.
Authority (and Responsibility)
3.
Discipline
4.
Unity of Command


5.Unity of Direction
6. Subordination of individual interests to the general
interests
7. Remuneration
8. Centralization (/Decentralization)
9. Scaler Chain
10. Order
11. Equity
12. Stability of Tenure of Personnel
13. Initiative
14. Espirit de corps
.

LIMITATIONS OF CLASSICAL APPROACH:
Did not emphasize human variables, did not take
into account differences in characters, and such
things as leadership, motivation, conflict and
communication.

THE BEHAVIORAL APPROACH
Emphasizes increasing production through an
understanding of people.
 If managers understand their people and adapt
their organizations to them, organizational
success will usually follow.
 The Hawthorne Studies
 The Human Relations Movement


THE HAWTHORNE STUDIES


R

Conducted at the Hawthorne (Chicago) Works of the
Western Electric Company between 1924 - 1932

PHASE 1: The Relay Assembly Test Room Experiments:
 Studied productivity under different working
conditions, specifically lighting
 Determine relationship between intensity of lighting
and worker efficiency
...
Continue Reading

Please join StudyMode to read the full document

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • History of Management Essay
  • Essay on Management History
  • HISTORY OF MANAGEMENT Essay
  • history Essay
  • The History of Modern Management Essay
  • History And Evolution Of Management Thought Essay
  • History of Management Theory Essay
  • History of Essays

Become a StudyMode Member

Sign Up - It's Free