Topics: History, Historiography, Philosophy of history Pages: 24 (7590 words) Published: June 21, 2013
History and geographyFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about the academic discipline. For a general history of human beings, see History of the world. For other uses, see History (disambiguation).

by Nikolaos Gysis (1892)
Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.[1] —George Santayana
History (from Greek ἱστορία - historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation"[2]) is an umbrella term that relates to past events as well as the discovery, collection, organization, and presentation of information about these events. The term includes cosmic, geologic, and organic history, but is often generically implied to mean human history. Scholars who write about history are called historians. History can also refer to the academic discipline which uses a narrative to examine and analyse a sequence of past events, and objectively determine the patterns of cause and effect that determine them.[3][4] Historians sometimes debate the nature of history and its usefulness by discussing the study of the discipline as an end in itself and as a way of providing "perspective" on the problems of the present.[3][5][6][7] Stories common to a particular culture, but not supported by external sources (such as the tales surrounding King Arthur) are usually classified as cultural heritage or legends, because they do not support the "disinterested investigation" required of the discipline of history.[8][9] Events occurring prior to written record are considered prehistory. Herodotus, a 5th-century B.C. Greek historian is considered within the Western tradition to be the "father of history", and, along with his contemporary Thucydides, helped form the foundations for the modern study of human history. Their work continues to be read today and the divide between the culture-focused Herodotus and the military-focused Thucydides remains a point of contention or approach in modern historical writing. In the Eastern tradition, a state chronicle the Spring and Autumn Annals was known to be compiled from as early as 722 BCE although only 2nd century BCE texts survived. Ancient influences have helped spawn variant interpretations of the nature of history which have evolved over the centuries and continue to change today. The modern study of history is wide-ranging, and includes the study of specific regions and the study of certain topical or thematical elements of historical investigation. Often history is taught as part of primary and secondary education, and the academic study of history is a major discipline in University studies. Contents [hide]

1 Etymology
2 Description
3 History and prehistory
4 Historiography
5 Philosophy of history
6 Historical methods
7 Areas of study
7.1 Periods
7.2 Geographical locations
7.2.1 World
7.2.2 Regions
7.3 Military history
7.4 History of religion
7.5 Social history
7.5.1 Subfields
7.6 Cultural history
7.7 Diplomatic history
7.8 Economic history
7.9 Environmental history
7.10 World history
7.11 People's history
7.12 Historiometry
7.13 Gender history
7.14 Public history
8 Historians
9 The judgement of history
10 Pseudohistory
11 Teaching history
11.1 Bias in school teaching
12 See also
13 References
14 External links

History by Frederick Dielman (1896)
A derivation from *weid- "know" or "see" is attested as "the reconstructed etymon wid-tor ["one who knows"] (compare to English wit) a suffixed zero-grade form of the PIE root *weid- 'see' and so is related to Greek eidénai, to know".[2][10] Ancient Greek ἱστορία[11] (hístōr) means "inquiry","knowledge from inquiry", or "judge". It was in that sense that Aristotle used the word in his Περὶ Τὰ Ζῷα Ἱστορίαι[12] (Perì Tà Zôa Ηistoríai "Inquiries about Animals"). The ancestor word ἵστωρ is attested early on in Homeric Hymns, Heraclitus, the Athenian ephebes' oath, and in Boiotic inscriptions (in a legal sense, either "judge" or "witness", or similar). The...

References: ^ George Santayana, "The Life of Reason", Volume One, p. 82, BiblioLife, ISBN 978-0-559-47806-2
^ a b Joseph, Brian (Ed.); Janda, Richard (Ed.) (2008)
^ a b Professor Richard J. Evans (2001). "The Two Faces of E.H. Carr". History in Focus, Issue 2: What is History?. University of London. Retrieved 10 November 2008.
^ Professor Alun Munslow (2001). "What History Is". History in Focus, Issue 2: What is History?. University of London. Retrieved 10 November 2008.
^ Tosh, John (2006). The Pursuit of History (4th ed.). Pearson Education Limited. ISBN 1-4058-2351-8.p 52
^ Peter N
^ a b Whitney, W. D. The Century dictionary; an encyclopedic lexicon of the English language. New York: The Century Co, 1889.
^ Michael C. Lemon (1995).The Discipline of History and the History of Thought. Routledge. Page 201. ISBN 0-415-12346-1
^ a b Graham, Gordon (1997)
^ Jack Goody (2007) The Theft of History (from Google Books)
^ Carr, Edward H
^ a b Lamberg-Karlovsky, C. C. and Jeremy A. Sabloff (1979). Ancient Civilizations: The Near East and Mesoamerica. Benjamin-Cummings Publishing. p. 5. ISBN 0-88133-834-6.
^ Lamberg-Karlovsky, C. C. and Jeremy A. Sabloff (1979). Ancient Civilizations: The Near East and Mesoamerica. Benjamin-Cummings Publishing. p. 6. ISBN 0-88133-834-6.
^ Ibn Khaldun, Franz Rosenthal, N. J. Dawood (1967), The Muqaddimah: An Introduction to History, p. x, Princeton University Press, ISBN 0-691-01754-9.
^ H. Mowlana (2001). "Information in the Arab World", Cooperation South Journal 1.
^ Salahuddin Ahmed (1999). A Dictionary of Muslim Names. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. ISBN 1-85065-356-9.
^ Enan, Muhammed Abdullah (2007). Ibn Khaldun: His Life and Works. The Other Press. p. v. ISBN 983-9541-53-6
^ Dr
^ Marwick, Arthur (1970). The Nature of History. The Macmillian Press LTD. p. 169.
^ Tosh, John (2006). The Pursuit of History. Pearson Education Limited. pp. 168–169.
^ Pavkovic, Michael; Morillo, Stephen (2006). What is Military History?. Oxford: Polity Press (published 31 July 2006). pp. 3–4. ISBN 978-0-7456-3390-9
^ Eric Cochrane, "What Is Catholic Historiography?" Catholic Historical Review Vol
^ G. M. Trevelyan (1973). "Introduction". English Social History: A Survey of Six Centuries from Chaucer to Queen Victoria. Book Club Associates. p. i. ISBN 0-582-48488-X.
^ Mary Fulbrook (2005). "Introduction: The people 's paradox". The People 's State: East German Society from Hitler to Honecker. London: Yale University Press. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-300-14424-6.
^ Robert Whaples, "Is Economic History a Neglected Field of Study?," Historically Speaking (April 2010) v. 11#2 pp 17-20, with responses pp 20-27
^ J
^ Ainslie T. Embree and Carol Gluck, eds., Asia in Western and World History: A Guide for Teaching (M.E. Sharpe, 1997)
^ Shigeru Akita, "World History and the Emergence of Global History in Japan,"Chinese Studies in History, Spring 2010, Vol
^ James W. Loewen, Lies My Teacher Told Me: Everything Your American History Textbook Got Wrong, (1996)
^ "Teaching History in Schools: the Politics of Textbooks in India," History Workshop Journal, April 2009, Issue 67, pp 99-110
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