Topics: Pala Empire, History of Bengal, Magadha Pages: 18 (7387 words) Published: June 18, 2013
The Liberation War of Bangladesh took place in 1971. Our country became free from the enemies on 16 December after a nine-month stanch war against the Pakistani army. The Liberation war is the story of our glory and pride. The Bangalees have such many events of glory. History represents events. It provides sequential and true account of what has been clearly described in it. In order to conduct a comprehensive investigation on history, it is necessary to become informed of the elements and classification of history.

From the century the names of the Janapada of ancient Bengal were obtained from stone inscriptions and literary works of the Gupta period, post Gupta period, Pala, Sena etc regime. It is not possible to say how much area these Janapadas covered. We can get an idea about their positions from the historical sources of the ancient age. Some Janapads are described below: Gaur: Though the name Gaur seems familiar, there are many differences of opinions about which area was referred to as Gaur in the ancient time. Again it was also unknown why Gaur was first referred to in the book of Panini. In Kautilya's 'Arthasastra' there are references of many industrial and agricultural products of the country Gaur . In the book of Vatsayana there are also references of the luxurious life of the inhabitants of Gaur in the third and the fourth century. It is proved from the stone inscriptions of the time of Harshavardhana that the country of Gaur was not so far from the coast. From the description written by varaha Mihira in the sixth century it is seen that Gaur was different from other Janapads such as Pundra, Bengal, Samatata. In Vabishoy Purana it has been described as a region lying on the south of the Padma and on the north of Burdwan. There is much similarity between this comment and the descriptions of the people of the seventh century. In the seventh century the capital of Sasanka, the king of Gaur was Karnasubarna near Murshidabad. Not only Sasanka, in the later periods Gaur was the capital of many other kings. During Palaa dynasty Gaur had the most name and fame. Then the vast region of north India was included in Gaur. Being a center of the empire, it had irresistible power and strength. In the later periods the destiny of Gaur started to change with the change of the destiny of the Pala empire. Then the border of Gaur diminished. Some regions of present Maldah, Murshidabad, Birbhum and Bardwan were considered the border of Gaur. In the seventh century the capital of the king Sasanka of Gaur was Karnasubarno in the region of Murshidabad.The Lakhnauti in the region of Maldhaha was called Gour at the beginning of the Muslim period. Later, Gaur was meant as the wholeof Bengal. Banga: Bengal was a very ancient Janapada. In the very ancient puthi(fairy tale) it was called neighbor of Janapadas Magodha and Kalinga. It is understandable from the references in Mahabharata that Bengal was a neighboring country of Pundra, Tamrolipto and Summa. Descriptions about this Jonapadaa are available in the stone inscriptions of Chandragupta, Vikramaditya, king of Chalukya,Rashtrakuta and in the books of Kalidas. A Janapada named Banga was built to the east and the south-east of present Bangladesh. It is surmised that a nation named Banga lived here. So, the Janapada was familiar as Banga. From the evidence of difference sources, it is thought that the area situated between the Ganges and the Bhagirathi was called Banga. The area of Banga shrank during the Pala and the Sena dynasty. In the eleventh century at the last phase of the Pala dynasty, Banga was divided in two parts and they became known as North Banga and South Banga respectively. The Padma was the north border of the northern region and the delta region of the South was the South Banga. In the later periods during the regime of Keshoba Senaa and Vishwarup Sena also two parts of Banga were noticed. But now their names were different - one was Vikrampura and the other...
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