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By NickAuger Apr 14, 2013 4997 Words
* Crisis in the Later Middle Ages, 1300-1450
* 1300-1450: “Little Ice Age”
* Cold weather and storms
* Poor harvests
* 1315-1322: “The Great Famine”
Little Ice Age
Too much rain, storms, cold
Scarcity and famine
* People’s immune systems were low; vulnerable to disease AND
* Workers underfed, less productive… higher grain prices * BLACK DEATH
* 1347: Ships bring plague to Italy
* Symptoms:
* Bleeding, vomiting, black sores, buboes
* Kills 1/3 – 1/2 population of Europe
* 1337–1453: war between France and England
* Joan of Arc helps the French win
* 1378-1417: Two popes
* Pope in Rome
* Pope in Avignon, France
* Another (THIRD!) pope is elected, but the other two won’t leave * Meetings eventually resolve the issue = back to one pope * PEASANT REVOLTS
* 14th century
* Peasants revolt throughout Europe
* -------------------------------------------------
Often merge with urban discontent
Made possible by…?
Rise in population
Increased agricultural output
Peace and political stability
Lays the foundation for…?
An urban, industrial Europe
* Towns grow from fortifications, cathedrals, Roman sites * New class = artisans and merchants
* Establishment of guilds
* Quality, regulation, training, conduct, provisions
* Revival of trade
* Business developments
* Infrastructure, companies and investors
* Sumptuary laws
Changes in business procedure
Growth in trade
Transformation of economy
Beginning of modern capitalism
Rural/isolated to urban/specialized economy
* Origins: Monastic and cathedral schools
* Bologna, Paris, Oxford, Cambridge
* No women or Jews allowed
* Curriculum
* Liberal Arts
* Revival of Classical sources
* Scholasticism
* Method of thinking/reasoning two sides of an issue with the goal of finding one rational answer * Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274)
Thomas Aquinas: Summa Theologiae
Article 3: Is there a God?
It seems that there is no God.
Objection 1: If one of a pair of opposites were infinite, it would totally destroy the other. But by the name ‘God’ one means a certain infinite good. Therefore, if there were a God, there would be no evil. But there is evil in the world. Therefore, there is no God. Objection 2: What can be accomplished with fewer principles is not done through more principles. But it seems that everything that happens in the world could have been accomplished through other principles, even if there were no God; for things that are natural are traced back to nature as a principle, whereas things that are purposeful are traced back to human reason or will as a principle. Therefore, there is no need to claim that there is a God. But contrary to this: Exodus 1:14 says under the personage of God, “I am Who am.” I respond: There are five ways to prove that there is a God. The first and clearest way is in looking at movement or change: It is certain, and obvious to the senses, that in this world some things are moved… If, then, that by which something is moved is itself moved, then it, too, must be moved by another, and that other by still another. But this does not go on to infinity. For if it did, then there would not be any first mover and, as a result, none of the others would effect movement, either. For secondary movers effect movement only because they are being moved by a first mover, just as a stick does not effect movement except because it is being moved by a hand. Therefore, one has to arrive at some first mover that is not being moved by anything. And this is what everyone takes to be a God. * CATHEDRALS

* Romanesque
* Rounded arches
* “In Roman manner”
* Massive and solid, “fortress of God”
* Gothic
* Pointed arches
* Stained-glass windows
* “Weightlessness,” “walls of light”
* 13th century
* Response to city life
* Emphasis on personal religious experience
* Stress poverty
Franciscans - Francis of Assisi (1182-1226)
Dominicans - Dominic de Guzman (1170-1221) Poor Clares
Francis of Assisi, “The Canticle of the Sun”
Most high, all powerful, all good Lord! All praise is yours, all glory, all honor, and all blessing. To you, alone, Most High, do they belong. No mortal lips are worthy to pronounce your name. Be praised, my Lord, through all your creatures, especially through my lord Brother Sun, who brings the day; and you give light through him. And he is beautiful and radiant in all his splendor! Of you, Most High, he bears the likeness. Be praised, my Lord, through Sister Moon and the stars; in the heavens you have made them, precious and beautiful. Be praised, my Lord, through Brothers Wind and Air, and clouds and storms, and all the weather, through which you give your creatures sustenance. Be praised, My Lord, through Sister Water; she is very useful, and humble, and precious, and pure. Be praised, my Lord, through Brother Fire, through whom you brighten the night. He is beautiful and cheerful, and powerful and strong. Be praised, my Lord, through our sister Mother Earth, who feeds us and rules us, and produces various fruits with colored flowers and herbs. -------------------------------------------------

Be praised, my Lord, through those who forgive for love of you; through those who endure sickness and trial. Happy those who endure in peace, for by you, Most High, they will be crowned. * The High Middle Ages II

* Conflict between
Secular Leaders and Church
* Gregorian Reforms
* Reforms initiated by Pope Gregory (1073-1085) to combat lay investiture (the popular practice wherein laymen appointed clergy).Led to a power struggle with the Holy Roman Emperor, Henry IV. * The Crusades

* “Holy wars” sponsored by the papacy for the recovery of the Holy Land from the Muslims from the late 11th to the late 13th century. * Fought on the home front, as well as far away
* Reasons:
* Consolidation of papal power
* Foreign adventure
* Religious fervour
* Activity for knights
* Scapegoating
* Background to the Crusades
* Popes wanted a show of force
* To enhance power & legitimacy in Western Europe
* To bring Roman Catholic influence into Byzantium
* 1071: Muslim Turks conquered Asia Minor, took Jerusalem shortly after * Emperor Alexius at Constantinople calls to West for help * 1095: Pope Urban II calls for Holy War against Muslims * Consolidation of Spiritual

Authority of the Church
* 1208: Pope Innocent III declares holy war against Cathars * People who totally rejected material world
* They criticized church for holding property and rejected sacraments * The Inquisition
* Court established by the papacy with the power to investigate and try individuals for heresy and other religious crimes * Life in the High Middle Ages
* The 3 Orders:
* Those who pray
* Those who fight
* Those who work
* The Life of a Peasant
* Farming
* Village life
* Nuclear family
* Religious life
* Mass
* Cult of the saints
* Sacraments, rituals and celebrations
* The Life of a Peasant
* Division of Labour between men and women
* The Life of a Peasant
* “The Worst Jobs in History”
* The Nobility
* Very few families descended from either Carolingian court or prominent Germanic tribes * There was a wide range of wealth within nobility
* A knight with little or no land dukes, counts with vast territories * The Life of a Knight
* Small percentage of the population
* 11th century: Claim noble status
* Focus on military skill
* Travel (fighting, tournaments)
* Chivalrous ideal
* The Life of a Priest or Monk
* Village priest = works with the peasants
* Monks = live in a stable, separate environment
* Provide social services (education, hospitals, feed the poor) * Academic scholarship
* -------------------------------------------------
Accumulated wealth
* The High Middle Ages: Church and State
* Picking up where we
left off last class...
* Charlemagne had united much of Europe under the Carolingian dynasty. After he died, his empire was divided between his three grandsons... * Viking invasions
* Vikings were Germanic peoples from Norway, Sweden and Denmark * Vik = creek
* Development of Feudalism
Charlemagne’s empire divided with
Treaty of Verdun
Fragmentation, instability
Viking invasions
* Feudalism
* A lord = a powerful noble who gained allegiance of a warrior (knight) * That warrior, or knight, became a vassal and was given a fief Lord
* The High Middle Ages (1000-1300)
* From a period of invasions, fragmentation and instability * TO
* Gradual centralization of states
* Broader Context of the
High Middle Ages
* Powerful feudal rulers came out of Early Middle Ages
* Political authority decentralized
* Overlapping, messy layers of authority
* New goals of royals in High Middle Ages
* To extend their authority
* The church and Pope gain more and more power in this period * Power struggles with political rulers
* Some Attributes of a State
* Geographical entity
* Law and order
* Finance and currency
During the High Middle Ages, many European kingdoms began to possess some of these attributes * Developments in France
* Kings of France had jurisdiction over small territory... Most of France was a collection of very independent provinces * Under Phillip II (r. 1180-1223), kingdom of France saw great territorial expansion * The Holy Roman Empire

* German king Otto I (r. 936-973) was powerful
* Practiced lay investiture, cause of later conflict with popes * Pope crowned him emperor (962)... “Emperor of what?” * A loose confederation of duchies, principalities, bishoprics etc spanning a vast territory in central Europe * Developments in England

* Background:
* Alfred of Wessex-victory over Viking conquerors in 878 * This allowed royal rule to extend all over England
* Shortly after, Vikings take England back, but ruler Canute promotes reconciliation btwn Vikings and Anglo-Saxons * Alfred’s administrative system remains intact
* Developments in England
* Dispute over succession after Canute’s heir, Edward, dies with no heirs * 1066: William of Normandy (distant relative of Edward) conquers England with an army of Norman nobles *

* Norman rule of England
* Creates unified monarchy out of feudal system
* Successfully centralizes the state
* Domesday Book
* Exchequer (son Henry I, r. 1100-1135)
* Henry II (r. 1154-1189)
* Developed and extended English common law
* His son, John (r. 1199-1216) forced to approve the Magna Carta in 1215 *
* Developments in Iberian Peninsula
* 10th to 11th centuries: shift away from Muslim rule, towards Christian rule * Reconquista
* -------------------------------------------------
Expulsion of non-Christians, especially Muslims
* The Early Middle Ages (600-1000)
* Continuity and Change...
* What are some examples of continuity during this period? * What are some examples of change?
* Arabia before Muhammad
* In 7th century Arabia
* 2 empires dominated—Sasanid Persians and Byzantine-Romans * Bedouins
* Hejazi
* The Prophet Muhammad
(ca. 571-632)
* c. 570: Born in Mecca
* c. 610: Receives vision from angel Gabriel
* 610-622: Preaches in Mecca
* 622: Migrates to Medina (hijra)
* Beginning of the ummah
* Muslim calendar begins
* 630: Returns to Mecca with army
* 632: Death
* The Qur’an
* The revelations of Muhammad, recorded during his lifetime by followers * Understood by Muslims to be the direct word of God
* Key principles:
* Monotheism
* Part of the Judeo-Christian line of prophets
* Struggle to lead a virtuous life (jihad)
* The Sunni-Shi’a Split
* Question arose of who Muhammad’s successors were
* Shi’ite: Belief that rightful successors were those with blood ties to Muhammad * Sunni: Belief that rightful successors were qualified companions of Muhammad * At times this rift has led to serious conflict

* Islam spreads...
* By 650: Conquered Syria, Egypt, North Africa and Persia * Advanced math, medicine and study of Greco-Roman texts
* Increased the freedom of women
* Promoted tolerance of other religions
* c. 710: Invasion of Spain
* European Kingdoms
* Frankish kingdom
* Merovingians
* Clovis – converted to Christianity turn of the 5th century * Beginning of close and friendly relationship with the pope * Developed system of administration involving partnership with aristocracy * Rise of the Carolingians

* Named after Charlemagne (r. 768-814)
* Aristocratic family under the Merovingians that rose to power, starting with Pippin I (died 640) * Several factors helped them become powerful
* Mayor of palace
* Influence throughout vast territory in Frankish world * Battle of Poitiers (732)
* Charlemagne (742-814)
* Expanded kingdom
* Fought Muslims in Spain
* Developed military and administration
* Missi dominici
* 800: Crowned Emperor by Pope
* Intellectual revival
* Scriptoria
* Liberal arts
* Treaty of Verdun (843)
* Charlemagne’s 3 grandsons divide Charlemagne’s empire into 3 parts: * Development of Feudalism
Charlemagne’s empire divided with
Treaty of Verdun (843)
-Fragmentation, instability
Viking invasions
* Feudalism
* A lord = a powerful noble who gained allegiance of a warrior (knight) * That warrior, or knight, became a vassal and was given a fief Lord
* Continuity and Change
* Greco-Roman ideas
* Spread of Christianity
* Prominence of German peoples
* Beginning of Islam
* -------------------------------------------------
Fall of Western Roman Empire
* Mid-Term Exam Review
* Paleolithic and Neolithic
* Paleolithic period: 400,000-7000 BCE
* Neolithic period: 7000-3000 BCE
* What were the major developments of these periods?
* Mesopotamia and Egypt
* Mesopotamians 3000-1595 BCE
* Egyptians 3100-1200 BCE
* What were the major developments of these early Near Eastern civilizations? * Rise of other kingdoms...
* Phoenicians (1200-539 BCE)
* Ancient Israelites
* Babylonian Captivity (ca 589-539 BCE)
* Assyrians (ca 934-612 BCE)
* Defeated by Medes and Babylonians
* Persian Empire (ending in 4th century BCE)
* Cyrus the Great r. 559-530 BCE
* Classical Greece
* Minoans (2000-1450 BCE)
* Crete
* Mycenaeans (1650-1100 BCE)
* Classical Greece
* “Dark Age” (1100-800 BCE)
* Emergence of the polis
* New forms of gov’t
* “Archaic Age” (800-500 BCE)
* Rise of Sparta and Athens
* “Classical Age” (500-338 BCE)
* The famous philosophers
* Wars that led to the breakdown of the power of Athens * The Hellenistic World
* Macedonians rise to power (359 BCE)
* Alexander the Great (356-323 BCE)
* Roman Republic
* Etruscan dominance in Rome, 753-509 BCE
* Foundation of Republic c. 509 BCE
* Social classes
* Political structure
* Expansion in Italian peninsula and overseas (ca. 282-146 BCE) * Punic Wars
* Civil War
* Julius Caesar crosses the Rubicon 49 BCE
* Roman Empire
* Succession of rulers (emperors) become more and more autocratic and cultivate trappings of monarchy * Jesus of Nazareth (ca BCE-29 CE) and development of Christianity * Periods of both stability (i.e. “the Five Good Emperors” 96 -180 CE) and chaos (i.e. Civil wars after Marcus Aurelius) * Encounters with barbarians, invasions

* Diocletian (r. 284-305 CE) splits empire in two in 285: Western Roman Empire and Byzantine Empire * Constantine (r. 306-337) accepts Christianity
* Late Antiquity
Ancient WorldMedieval World
There was change AND continuity
* Western Roman Empire and Byzantine Empire
* Western: Dealing with attacks/invasions from different barbarian tribes * By end of 6th century, much of Western Roman Empire has fallen under control of Germanic peoples * Byzantine: had strong military and Constantinople was well-protected The Byzantine Empire lasts for one thousand years after the end of the Western Roman Empire * Byzantine Developments

* Law Code of Justinian
* Corpus juris civilis
* The Rise and Spread of Christianity
* Church structure modelled on Roman gov’t structures
* Benefited from support of emperor
* Constantine’s conversion and financial support
* Theodosius makes it official religion of empire (380 CE) * In Western Roman Empire, Bishop of Rome becomes strong figure * Monasticism
* In 3rd century, some Christians in Egypt started to break away from society, leave the city, and seek God through prayer * Eremitical monasticism
* Coenobitic monasticism
* Benedictine monasticism took hold in West
* Spread of Christianity
* Missionaries
* Conversion of Germanic kings, Celts of Ireland, Britain * Emphasis on assimilation
* Make Christianity and pagan religions seem similar to one another * Migration of Barbarian Peoples
* 1st century CE:
* Celts lived in area east of Rhine River and Germans on North and Baltic Seas * 4th century CE:
* Germans had pushed into Celtic territory; Celts then moved into NW France and British Isles * 410 CE:
* Visigoths take Rome
* Frankish kingdom
* Established by Franks in 6th century
* Allied with Romans
* Clovis (ca 481-511)
* Frankish king
* Takes Roman Gaul
* Converts to Christianity support of papacy & bishops of Gaul * Britain
* 2nd and 3rd centuries: Celts in Britain had assimilated to Roman culture * 5th century: invasions from Ireland and Scotland
Celtic Britons call for help from Saxons
Saxons and Angles take over Britain, destroy Roman culture there Ninth century: Celtic Britons and Germanic
Anglo-Saxons united
* The Roman Empire
* What were the problems that led to the downfall of the Republic? * Tensions between patricians and plebeians
* Land distribution – esp. for soldiers
Does the Empire successfully
resolve these problems?
* Succeeds Julius Caesar after a group of senators shoots him * Pax Romana
* Principate
* 27 BCE: princeps
* 31-23 BCE: consul
* 23 BCE: tribune
* Pontifex maximus
* Imperator
* Territorial expansion
* The “barbarians”
* Judea = Roman province
* Growing apocalypticism
* Different Jewish factions
* Tensions with Roman rulers
* Jesus of Nazareth (ca 3 BCE-29 CE)
* Christianity spreads...
* Paul of Tarsus (5-67 BCE)
* He travelled
* Universalism
* “There is neither Jew nor Gentile, neither slave nor free, nor is there male and female, for you are all one in Christ.” * Roman infrastructure
* After Augustus
* Success and stability varied—there were good times and bad * Under Julio-Claudians (27 BCE-68 CE), territorial expansion North and West * 69-96 CE: unrest, strengthening of borders

* Government was becoming more and more monarchic
* “The Five Good Emperors”
* 96-180 CE
* Full-blown monarchy
* “Golden Age” in Rome
* Travel and trade
* Improved sanitation
* “Bread and circuses”
* Development of Romance languages
* Disarray and Recovery
* Civil wars (After Marcus Aurelius)
* Barracks Emperors (rule of military commanders)
* Preoccupation with power left borders unchecked
* Barbarian invasions
* Diocletian (r. 284-305 CE)
* Returned stability; solidified monarchic rule
* Tetrarchy
* Constantine (r. 306-337)
* Reconstruction
* Socioeconomic Issues
Constant wars and barbarian invasions
Farmers and families were killed or fled
Abandoned tracts of land reclaimed by large landlords, established estates Farmers who remained: became what would later be called “serfs” * Reflection
Does the Empire successfully
resolve the problems of the Republic?
Rome-The Republic
Rome emerges...
Etruscans settle in Etruria, Romans in Latium
Etruscans become rich, economically and culturally, through trade Etruscans ruled Rome from 753 to 509 BCE, developing the city into an important centre of culture and trade Founding of the Republic

Series of Etruscan kings
Rape of Lucretia
Romans revolt
Foundation of the Republic (c. 509 BCE)
SPQR ~ senatus populusque Romanum
Social Structure
elected two consuls and had the senate
through conquest
The social structure is going to become a source of great strife later on... Social Inequality and Conflict
Inequality between patricians and plebeians
“Struggle of the Orders” (494-287 BCE)
Creation of Tribunes
Meanwhile, the Romans are expanding their territory...
Expansion in Italian Peninsula
As Romans establish colonies throughout Italy, they grant right to self-government As Romans came into contact with new lands, they adopted aspects of other legal systems and codes... Leads to the idea of natural law, that there are universal laws that can be applied to everybody Overseas Conquest (282-146 BCE)

Conquest through series of wars
First Punic War (264-241 BCE)
Rome against Carthage for Sicily. Rome takes it.
Rome takes Sardinia and Corsica
Rome and Carthage engage in conflict over Spain
Second Punic War (218-202 BCE)-by 202 BCE Rome takes Carthage itself; becomes foremost power in Western Mediterranean And more overseas conquest…
Rome just keeps going! Starts moving east:
The Hellenistic kingdoms all fall under Roman rule by 133 BCE Civil War
The land issue
Gracchus brothers (Tiberius and Gaius)
Power struggles between generals
(Marius and Sulla)
Civil War Continues
Caesar, Pompey, Crassus = First Triumvirate
Aim to overthrow Republic with army
Crassus dies; Caesar and Pompey split
Crossing the Rubicon
“The die is cast”
Caesar defeats Pompey and becomes dictator
* The Essay and Other Work for Western Civilization
* Due dates for this semester
* What the essay will look like
* What is a primary source and a secondary source?
* How to find secondary sources for your essay
* Choose your primary source for your essay
* Due Dates-Winter 2013
* Mid-term exam: Feb. 27th
* Essay Outline and Bibliography: March 20th
* Essay: April 10th
* What the essay will look like...
* You’re doing an analysis of a primary source, and you’ll use three secondary sources to help your analysis * You’ll provide a focus question in your introduction, provide your context and analysis in the body, and answer your focus question in your conclusion * What is a primary source?

* An artefact, document, recording, etc. that was created during the time you are studying * Examples of primary sources:
* Diary entries
* Letters
* First-hand accounts or stories
* Photographs
* Speeches
* Art
* Newspapers
* What is a secondary source?
* A second-hand, published account of something. Secondary sources are created after primary sources. * Examples of secondary sources:
* History textbooks
* Academic articles analyzing historical events
* Documentaries about historical events
* Finding secondary sources
* For your essay you will need to refer to three secondary sources: * ONE published book
* ONE academic, peer-reviewed article
* -------------------------------------------------
ONE .edu web site
* Alexander the Great and the Hellenistic World
1. Quiz #1
2. Readings and keywords for next week
3. Alexander and the Hellenistic World
* Alexander the Great
* Breakdown of Athenian Dominance
* In the wake of the Peloponnesian War, Athens was left a shambles. * This left space for a new power to rise...
* Rise of Macedonians and
King Philip
* Macedonian King Philip rose to the throne in 359 BCE
* Began conquering territory in NW Aegean, pushing Athens out of region * 338 BCE, Philip’s army defeats Athens and Thebes
* King Philip and Macedonians become rulers of Greece
* Alexander the Great
* Son Alexander (356-323 BCE) inherited the throne
* Admired Achilles, claimed he was a descendant of Zeus
* Conquered Persia, killed King Darius (revenge for Persian Wars) * Extended his empire from Greece to India
* Brings poets, scientists, philosophers, historians
* Plants cities (Alexandria…)
* Establishes trade routes
* Alexander the Great
* Died at 32 years old
* Empire split after his death; no one could achieve the unity Alexander achieved Vastly different accounts of Alexander exist…
was he a hero or a tyrant?
* Hellenism
* Greek culture, language, thought, and way of life
* Spreads throughout Alexander’s territory, mixing with local traditions * This was a time of great cultural exchange
* Shift away from the polis
* Monarchic rule (Macedonian kings)
* -------------------------------------------------
New class system (Macedonian nobles, Greeks in upper ranks) * -------------------------------------------------
Ancient Greece
1. -------------------------------------------------
Getting ready for Quiz #1: what is historical significance?
2. -------------------------------------------------
Reading and key words for next class
3. -------------------------------------------------
Ancient Greece
* -------------------------------------------------
Getting ready for the first quiz...
* -------------------------------------------------
State the significance of terms. Consider these:
* -------------------------------------------------
Profundity: How deeply were people's lives affected by this event, person, place, etc.? * -------------------------------------------------
Quantity: Did the event, person, place affect many people, everyone, just a few? Were the effects widespread or localised? * -------------------------------------------------
Durability: How long were people affected by this? How durable was the event in time? * -------------------------------------------------
Relevance: Is the event relevant to our understanding of the past and/or present? Does the event affect the world we live in today? * ------------------------------------------------- Pericles:

* -------------------------------------------------
“Future ages will wonder at us as the present age wonders at us now.” * -------------------------------------------------
What was the lasting influence of the ancient Greeks? Were the Greeks “wondrous,” as Pericles suggested? * -------------------------------------------------
What are some of the things the ancient Greeks brought us?
* -------------------------------------------------
What are some of the things the ancient Greeks brought us? -------------------------------------------------
* -------------------------------------------------
The Minoans
* -------------------------------------------------
Lived on Crete
* -------------------------------------------------
2000-1450 BCE
* -------------------------------------------------
Minoan culture developed through trade
* -------------------------------------------------
The Mycenaeans
* -------------------------------------------------
1650-1100 BCE
* -------------------------------------------------
Based in Mycenae
* -------------------------------------------------
* -------------------------------------------------
Conflict between Minoans
and Mycenaeans
* -------------------------------------------------
Early contact is peaceful
* -------------------------------------------------
Minoan culture influenced Mycenaeans
* -------------------------------------------------
1450 BCE, Mycenaeans attacked Crete
* -------------------------------------------------
After 50 years of warfare, Cnossus destroyed
* -------------------------------------------------
Mycenaean Dominance
* -------------------------------------------------
Mycenaeans prosper, expand commercially with fall of Cnossus * -------------------------------------------------
However, lack of cohesion between different kingdoms
* -------------------------------------------------
Mycenaeans fall into war, destruction
* -------------------------------------------------
The “Dark Age”
* -------------------------------------------------
1100-800 BCE
* -------------------------------------------------
Period of poverty
* -------------------------------------------------
Cause of widespread migration, movement of Greek peoples to other areas * -------------------------------------------------
Spread of Greek culture throughout Aegean region
* -------------------------------------------------
The Dark Age, cont’d
* -------------------------------------------------
Homer writes Iliad, Odyssey
* -------------------------------------------------
Hesiod writes Theogony


* -------------------------------------------------
Hoplites (army)

* -------------------------------------------------
New forms of government
* -------------------------------------------------
* -------------------------------------------------
* -------------------------------------------------
* -------------------------------------------------
The Archaic Age (800-500 BCE)
* -------------------------------------------------
Overseas expansion
* -------------------------------------------------
The Metropolis
* -------------------------------------------------
Rise of Sparta
* -------------------------------------------------
* -------------------------------------------------
Rise of Athens
* -------------------------------------------------
* ------------------------------------------------- Which polis has the greater impact on Western civilization?
* -------------------------------------------------
The Classical Age (500-338 BCE)
* -------------------------------------------------
Major developments in...
* -------------------------------------------------
* -------------------------------------------------
Socrates (470-399 BCE)
* -------------------------------------------------
Probing discourse
* -------------------------------------------------
Logical reasoning
* -------------------------------------------------
Pursuit of wisdom
* -------------------------------------------------
“The unexamined life is not worth living.”
* -------------------------------------------------
Killed by the Athenian state
* -------------------------------------------------
Plato(429-347 BCE)
* -------------------------------------------------
Socrates’ student
* -------------------------------------------------
What is reality?
* -------------------------------------------------
World of experience, senses
* -------------------------------------------------
World of “form”
* -------------------------------------------------
Creates the Academy
* -------------------------------------------------
Aristotle (384-322 BCE)
* -------------------------------------------------
Plato’s student
* -------------------------------------------------
Alexander the Great was his student
* -------------------------------------------------
Observing and classifying the natural world
* -------------------------------------------------
The Classical Age (500-338 BCE)
* -------------------------------------------------
Major developments in...
* -------------------------------------------------
* -------------------------------------------------
* -------------------------------------------------
* -------------------------------------------------
* -------------------------------------------------
* -------------------------------------------------
* -------------------------------------------------
Persian Wars (499-479 BCE) – Why was defeat of Persians so significant? * -------------------------------------------------
Peloponnesian War (431-404 BCE)
* -------------------------------------------------
* -------------------------------------------------
“Future ages will wonder at us as the present age wonders at us now.” * -------------------------------------------------
What were the major contributions of the ancient Greeks to Western civilization? * -------------------------------------------------
Was Pericles right? Should we wonder at, be proud of, the Greeks? -------------------------------------------------

* The Ancient Near East
* Fall of hittites and egypt
* Rise of new states and kingdoms
* Disruption and Diffusion
* Invasions bring an end to Hittite and Egyptian dominance (around 1200 BCE) * New Kingdoms
* Phoenicians, Hebrews, Nubians create patchwork of small states and kingdoms that cover the entire Near East. * The Nubians
* Filled a power vacuum left by Egyptians, who had weakened by invasions. * The Rise of Phoenicia
* Hittites fell, allowed Phoenicians to expand.
* Expanded marine trade on Mediterranean.
* The Rise of the Phoenicians
* Expanded trade routes:
* Established trading posts, spread Mesopotamian culture * The Rise of the Phoenicians
* Major cultural development:
* A new alphabet, with one letter for each sound.
* Ancient Israel
* Hebrews also flourished with power vacuum left by Hittites History:
* Abraham led the Hebrews out of Mesopotamia
* Went to Egypt, where they were enslaved
* Moses led them out, and they went to the Sinai Peninsula * Ancient Israel
* In Palestine, creation of monarchy out of 12 tribes
* Monarchy consolidated. Solomon (965-925 BCE) tried to unify it as a nation * Kingdom splits in two: Judah and Israel
* Ancient Israel
* Invasions and Babylonian Captivity
* Freedom and the creation of the Jewish faith
* Jewish Faith
* Monotheism
* Covenant
* Law, Commandments
* Impact
* Assyria
* Phoenicians and Hebrews had small kingdoms
* Around 800 BCE, Assyrians rise to power
* Kings Shalmaneser, Tiglath-pileser III, Sargon II
* From 859 to 716 BCE, Assyrians engaged in warfare to carve out an empire in Mesopotamia * Assyrian Growth
* Defeat of Assyria, rise of Persia
* Assyrians defeated in 612 BCE by Babylonians and Medes, an Iranian people * Balance of power shifted further east
* Persian Empire
* Cyrus the Great, King of Persia 559-530 BCE
* Conquered Medes, united Iranian peoples under Persia
* Conquered vast amounts of territory: a “world empire” * Anatolia (Kingdom of Lydia and Greek port cities on Mediterranean) * Far eastern reaches of Iran
* Egypt
* Mesopotamia
* Western India
* Persian Rule
* Allowed conquered peoples to maintain their customs
* Created efficient system of governance
* Capital city of Persepolis: administrative centre
* Sophisticated infrastructure, roads: the Royal Road
* Zoroastrianism
* Preacher Zarathustra introduced new spiritual concepts (600 BCE) * Battle between good and evil
* Good would be blessed with immortality and sent to a divine kingdom * Bad would be condemned to eternal suffering
* Reflection
* Which empire was more effective: the Assyrian or the Persian? * -------------------------------------------------
Origins and First Civilizations
What is “The West”?
Origins of Western Civilization
Mesopotamia and Egypt
Why study history, and what is “The West”?
Why study history?
Historical “fact”?
“All knowledge that is about human society, and not about the natural world, is historical knowledge, and therefore rests upon judgment and interpretation. This is not to say that facts or data are nonexistent, but that facts get their importance from what is made of them in interpretation… for interpretations depend very much on who the interpreter is, who he or she is addressing, what his or her purpose is, at what historical moment the interpretation takes place.”  ― Edward W. Said

What is “the West”?
What is “the West”?
Geographic definition
Originally referred to Europe

* Cultural definition
* Eventually started to refer to countries that share a similar, European-based culture (Europe, Canada, USA, Australia, etc.) Edward Said: Orientalism
“East” and “West,” “Occident” and “Orient,” as tools for defining an “Us” and a “Them.” Origins of Western Civilization
From Caves to Towns
Paleolithic period (400,000 to 7000 B.C.E)
Nomadic, hunter-gatherers
The first stone tools
Neolithic period (7000 to 3000, B.C.E)
New tools
Sustained agriculture, irrigation
Domestication of animals
What do we mean when we say “civilization”?
An advanced state of intellectual, cultural, and material development in human society, marked by progress in the arts and sciences, the extensive use of record-keeping, including writing, and the appearance of complex political and social institutions. This is what was starting to happen...

Mesopotamia and Egypt:
The “Cradle of Civilization”
Mesopotamia: arid (dry) climate, challenge for farming.
Development of irrigation on a large scale
Strong central authority, government
Made the development of towns and cities possible
The Development of Writing
The Sumerians developed cuneiform writing during their period of dominance in Mesopotamia, ca. 3200-2200 B.C.E. Hammurabi (r. 1792-1750 B.C.E.)
A powerful king of Babylonian Empire
Developed a code of law
The Code of Hammurabi
What do the following excerpts tell us about life in Mesopotamia? 17. If a seignior caught a fugitive male or female slave in the open and has taken him to his owner, the owner of the slave shall pay him two shekels of silver. 18. If that slave will not name his owner, he shall take him to the palace in order that his record may be investigated, and they shall return him to his owner. Mesopotamian Developments

Cuneiform writing
Patriarchal social hierarchy
Law code
The wheel
*3000-1595 B.C.E.
Egyptian Civilization
*3100-1200 B.C.E.
Centred around the Nile River
Egyptian Developments
Belief in the afterlife
Hieroglyphic writing
Potential monotheism
The Hittites (1640-1000 B.C.E.)
First Indo-Europeans in the region
Introduced the use of iron
Foundations of modern European languages
Summing up:
Why are Mesopotamia and Egypt called the cradle of civilization? What were their most significant contributions to Western civilization? Note-taking
What to write?
Instructors give clues about the things they think are important. Writing on the board
Time spent talking about something
Reviews and summaries
Don’t copy word-for-word what’s on the slide!
How to write?
Write the date
Use short-hand; be brief
Underline or highlight important parts
Note-taking styles
Note-taking styles

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