History 130 – 003: Colonial Latin-America
Latin America's independence can be traced over time through several key movements, especially in the cases of Haiti and Brazil. In the late sixteenth and early seventeenth century, both of these colonies saw the massive undertaking of revolution from their monarchs. Likewise, the Spanish-American colonies saw a long series of rebellious campaigns which resulted in the total secession from European sovereignty. These three distinct happenings had co-mingling causes and effects, especially in the social domains of status and race.
In the case of Spanish America, a series of socioeconomic repressions fueled tensions and resentment of the Spanish authority. For the many countries, over the vast territories spanning from Mexico to Venezuela, and the satellite lands of the Caribbean, regional competition also fanned the flames of revolution. (Dubois) Unlike the other two revolutions yet mentioned, the Central- and South-American cultures had grown distant from its mother country. Pride in Spanish heritage had dissipated over the centuries of colonization, and from years of atrocities handed down by royal charge. This led to the single objective of liberty and insubordination to the Crown. (Guadalajara)
Though the strict economic policies of Spain had created a booming trade market all through the South of the West – as natural resources depleted and countries became settled – national identities began to take precedence over expansion and cultivation. (Guadalajara) To oversimplify, these nationalist tendencies promoted separate ideas. These took the form of support for two major figureheads of the independence progression: King Ferdinand VII who proposed rule under traditional South-American laws, and the Spanish assembly Cortes, supporters of whom would affirm the latest Spanish laws in the newly sovereign colonies. (Dubois)
For all intents and purposes, the rebellion seeking autonomy of Spanish...
Bibliography: Dubois, Laurent, and John D. Garrigus. Slave revolution in the Caribbean, 1789-1804: a brief history with documents. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006.
Eakin, Marshall C.. The history of Latin America: collision of cultures. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007.
Guadalajara, México. El Despertador Americano: primer periódico insurgente. Ed. facs. ed. Guadalajara: Instituto Jalisciense de Antropología e Historia, 1968.
Lecuna, Vicente. Selected writing of Bolivar; 1823-1830,. New York: Colonial Press, 1951.
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