History 101 Extra Credit Assignment
1. First Opium War 1839-42
The First Anglo-Chinese War known popularly as the First Opium War was fought between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the Qing Dynasty of China, with the aim of securing economic benefits from trade in China. In 1842, the Treaty of Nanking the first of what the Chinese called the unequal treaties granted an indemnity to Britain, the opening of five treaty ports, and the cession of Hong Kong Island, ending the monopoly of trading in the Canton System. The war marked the end of China's isolation and the beginning of modern Chinese history. 2. Meiji Restoration
Meiji Restoration, in Japanese history, the political revolution that brought about the fall of the Tokugawa shogunate and returned control of the country to direct imperial rule under the emperor Meiji, beginning an era of major political, economic, and social change known as the Meiji period. This revolution brought about the modernization and Westernization of Japan. In 1868 the Tokugawa shôgun great general, who ruled Japan in the feudal period, lost his power and the emperor was restored to the supreme position. The emperor took the name Meiji enlightened rule as his reign name; this event was known as the Meiji Restoration. 3. Tanzimat Reforms of the Ottomans
The Tanzimat was a series of governmental reforms between 1839 and 1876 that sought to centralize and rationalize Ottoman rule and capture more tax revenues for the military defense of the empire. The Tanzimat period is usually associated with particular personalities in the central government: the sultans Abdülmecit II and Abdülaziz, and the high-ranking bureaucrats Mustafa Reşid Paşa, Ali Paşa, and Fuad Paşa. The Tanzimat was preceded by earlier reform efforts since the eighteenth century, particularly by Abdülmecit I and Abdülaziz's father, Mahmud II, between 1808 and 1839. And it would be followed by reforms in the early reigns of Abdülhamit II and the...
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