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Historical Report on Race

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Historical Report on Race
Kimberly Hoagland
Robin Stine
Eth/125
December 07, 2014

As many of us know African Americans also known as colored people, have experienced many different hardships throughout America’s history. “In the mid-1500s, European mariners started bringing black Africans to America as slaves” (Constitutional Rights Foundations 2014). African Americans were treated very badly and many died on the trip across the Atlantic Ocean, and many more from a result of being treated so harshly once they arrived on land. They were sold into slavery where they were considered property, had no rights, past down to the next generation, and etc. (Schaefer p.177). Slaves had to follow many different codes and it shows how badly African Americans have suffered over the years. Slaves were controlled by fear and intimidation. When slaves did not follow the codes they were punished in many different ways. For example: whipped, beaten, imprisoned, hung, or etc. On top of that women also had to deal with rape and there was nothing they could do about it. In 1865 slavery was dismissed throughout the United States (Schaefer p.180). Since then African Americans have experienced many other hardships. For example: discrimination, segregation, hatred, racism, and etc. It has not by any means been an easy going ride for African Americans. There have been many different political, social, and cultural issues or concerns throughout America’s history, because of the color of their skin. There has been discrimination towards African Americans and has hindered them from performing the best that they can. There was laws created to help support oppression of African Americans. As time went by laws were passed to help stop discrimination with the help of African Americans standing up against the discrimination that they were dealing with. For example: “in 1955, a black seamstress Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat to a white man on a Montgomery, Alabama, city bus” (History 2014). This brought around a citywide boycott that helped put a stop to segregation. There are many organizations that have come about to help voice ways of preventing discrimination. For example: in 1942, James Farmer organized an organization called Congress of Racial Equality (CORE). Core was created and to help end discriminatory policies through direct-action projects (Congress of Racial Equality 2014). These organizations helped start the beginning of the end of discrimination, segregation, slavery, de jure segregation, and etc. Legislation meant to constrain race with prejudicial boundaries that enacted. For example: Jim Crow Laws or de jure segregation. Jim Crow laws were created to separate the whites and blacks. They were set in place to supposedly treat blacks as separates but equal (Schaefer p.180). It separated the whites and blacks in many different ways. Blacks were not allowed to eat in the same restaurant, use the same bathrooms, stay in the same hotels, or go to the same schools. While they were enslaved there were slave codes that they had to follow. For example: they were not allowed to gamble, they had curfews, they could not own property, they could not marry, they could not have a weapon, or etc. (Schaefer p.177). The United States made it very difficult for African Americans to become who they are in today’s society. African Americans fought legislation in many different ways. They boycotted, ran away, or etc., just to get away from the laws or to try and end the rules. Although African Americans were beaten or arrested they still continued to stand their grounds to get what they deserved. The government also put into place a restrictive covenant. “Racially restrictive covenants played a major role in contributing to residential segregation” (Ramos 1995). This covenant helped keep blacks from living in white neighborhoods. African Americans fought the system to overturn the covenant and to be able to live where ever they wanted. In 1963 President Lincoln put Emancipation Proclamation into effect. “Emancipation Proclamation freed all people that were held as slaves, but only was meant for the states that were involved in the Confederacy” (Schaefer p.180). The thirteenth amendment stopped slavery all together, in every state. There have been many laws created to help stop discrimination throughout the United Stated. Not only for African Americans but also for other minorities. African Americans have faced many hardships throughout America’s history and they have had a long journey to get where they are today. Even though there is still discrimination and racism throughout America, African Americans are pushing through to keep the rights that they deserve. No one should have to endure the struggles that African Americans have suffer throughout the years.

References:
Schaefer, R. T. (2012). Racial and Ethnic Group (13th Ed.). Retrieved from The University of Phoenix eBook Collection Database ETH/125.
Constitutional Rights Foundations. (2014). An Overview of the African-American Experience. Retrieved from: http://www.crf-usa.org/black-history-month/an-overview-of-the-african-american-experience
History. (2014). Rosa Parks. Retrieved from: http://www.history.com/topics/black-history/rosa-parks
N.A. (2014). Congress of Racial Equality (CORE). In The encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved from: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/488122/Congress-of-Racial-Equality-CORE
Ramos, Christopher. (1995). Racially Restrictive Covenants and Mexican Americans. Retrieved from: http://racism.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1185:housing01-1&catid=57&Itemid=180

References: Schaefer, R. T. (2012). Racial and Ethnic Group (13th Ed.). Retrieved from The University of Phoenix eBook Collection Database ETH/125. Constitutional Rights Foundations. (2014). An Overview of the African-American Experience. Retrieved from: http://www.crf-usa.org/black-history-month/an-overview-of-the-african-american-experience History. (2014). Rosa Parks. Retrieved from: http://www.history.com/topics/black-history/rosa-parks N.A. (2014). Congress of Racial Equality (CORE). In The encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved from: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/488122/Congress-of-Racial-Equality-CORE Ramos, Christopher. (1995). Racially Restrictive Covenants and Mexican Americans. Retrieved from: http://racism.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1185:housing01-1&catid=57&Itemid=180

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