Historical Report on Race.
Native American Experiences in History; Political, Social, and Cultural Issues
In the 19th century a pattern of Indian removal began in earnest in the US and Canada. The United States Congress passed the Indian removal act in 1830 in response to the discovery of gold in Georgia. This prompted the forced migration of thousands of Native American people westward away from their homeland and to lands deemed worthless. In 1838 tens of thousands of Indians from the Southeastern region and as far to the northeast as Canada were forced to march west along what is known as the “Trail of Tears” to an area of confinement that is present day Oklahoma. If the Indians balked or made an attempt to resist, soldiers were called in and would crush any attempt at rebellion. After the civil war had ended, the Army focused its attention on the Plains Indians who were the only Indians not under government control at the time. Troops moved west to force those tribes onto reservations or to simply kill them.
Aside from forced migration utilized as a method of getting rid of the Native Americans in what can only be described as a “land grab”, another alternative was simply to eradicate the race by means of genocide. After the annihilation of Gen. George Custer and his 7th cavalry at the battle of Little Bighorn by Indians of the Sioux tribe in 1876, the 7th cavalry was rebuilt and returned to South Dakota where they massacred more than 200 Sioux at Wounded Knee Creek in 1890. Educational, E. B. (2010). This was not an isolated incident. Throughout the Southwest, large numbers of Apache and Navajo tribe members were systematically slaughtered by soldiers of the U.S. Army and western settlers alike in the name of imminent domain or the power of a government to confiscate private land for public use. “The situation is compounded by such apparently willful early experiments in biological warfare
References: Educational, E. B. (2010). Native American History. Rosen Education Service Hiram Price, unpublished typescript (available in John W. Shleppey Collection, McFarlin Library, University of Tulsa). Jaimes, M. A. (1992-01-01). The State of Native America: Genocide, Colonization, and Resistance. South End Press. Jacobs, Wilbur R., "British Indian Policies to 1783," in Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 4: History of Indian-White Relations, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., 1988. Strickland, R. J. (1986). Genocide-at-Law: An Historic and Contemporary View of the Native American Experience. University of Kansas Law Review, 34(4), 713-756.