Clinical Supervision/Hunter Model
Post World War II
Supervision is conducted by local government and clergy.
1700’s-mid 1800’s mid 1800’s- 1930’s 1940’s-1950’s late 1950’s-early 1980’s mid 1980’s-mid 1990’s mid 1990’s-present
There were many eras in supervision. The earliest notes the use of local government and clergy to supervise teachers in schools. Clergy were chosen to monitor teachers and the quality of instruction because of their extensive background in education. Once school systems began to emerge in the early 1800’s, a teacher in each school was chosen to perform administrative duties, thus taking on the role of what was known as the principal teacher. This lasted until the mid 1800’s.
Next came the Scientific Management Era. Two educational theories were fiercely debated during this time, John Dewey’s theory of student-centered, differentiated instruction with real-world connections and Frederick Taylor’s theory of measurement and analysis of data to prove quality of a curriculum and teacher effectiveness. I believe that this was a pivotal era because these ideals are still the main focus in evaluating education and teachers today.
Post World War II, supervision saw a shift from the scientific method and began to put more focus on developing the teacher. It was during this time that teachers were seen as people, and that their emotional needs were just as important to their effectiveness as a teacher as their ability to teach. “Guidelines for a successful supervisory model included (1) democratic ideals, (2) opportunities for initiative, (3) understanding human limitations, (4) shared decision making, and (5) delegation of responsibility” (Marzano, Frontier, & Livingston, 2011, Chapter 2).
The 1960’s saw the beginning of the Clinical Supervision era. It was during this era that Robert
References: Marzano, R. J., Frontier, T., & Livingston, D. (2011). Effective Supervision: Supporting the Art and Science of Teaching. Retrieved from http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/110019/chapters/A-Brief-History-of-Supervision-and-Evaluation.aspx.