1. 470-399 B.C.E. Socrates believed that we are born with knowledge and by reasoning correctly, we gain access to it. He also believed that our minds (souls) do not cease to exist when we die. Dualism is a concept where thoughts and ideas are distinct from the world of real objects and or bodies. Morris C., & Maisto A. (2013). Understanding psychology (10th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson. He is best recognized for inventing the teaching practice of pedagogy, wherein a teacher questions a student in a manner that draws out the correct response. (Ancient Greece (para 1). This reminds me of classical conditioning. 2. 427-347 B.C.E. Plato was a student of Socrates, and founded the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world. Along with Socrates and his most famous student, Aristotle, Plato helped to lay the foundations of Western philosophy and science. (Wikipedia, n.d.) 3. 384-322 B.C.E. Aristotle was a student of Plato. He believe that our knowledge comes from observing the world and made sense of our observations through logistics and reasoning. (Understanding Psychology page 12 para 1) Aristotle studies at the Academy in Athens for 20 years, before founding his own school, The Lyceum, which closed in 83 BC. The remains of the Lyceum were discovered in modern Athens in 1996 in a park behind the Hellenic Parliament. (Wikipedia, n.d.) 4. 1596-1650 Rene Descartes believe in dualism along with Socrates. He believed that the human mind was not subject to laws. The mind controls the body, and the body provides information for the brain. (Understanding Psychology page 12 para 2) 5. 1632-1704 John Locke believed along the same views as Aristotle. He believed that we gain knowledge through experience. His views differed greatly from Socrates and Plato because he believed that at birth a person’s mind is a “blank state”, or tabula rasa, with no knowledge and is subjected to law. (Understanding Psychology, page 12...
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