Hist107 Final Paper

Topics: Nicholas II of Russia, Russian Empire, Russia Pages: 8 (1995 words) Published: April 14, 2015


A Term Paper
Submitted to
Mr. Sashah B. Dioso

In partial fulfilment of the requirements
in History 107 (Modern History of Russia)

Junauelle Kyla B. Andres
Camille May B. Savillo
BS Economics IV


The Romanov dynasty was the last imperial dynasty to rule Russia. The Romanovs ruled Russia for almost three centuries, from 1613 until 1917, the year of its fall during the Bolshevik Revolution. The Romanovs were descendants of the boyar Andrey Ivanovich Kobyla. The name “Romanov” was taken from the first wife of Ivan the Terrible who was Anastasia Romanova, the daughter of Roman Yurev. The children of Anastasia’s brother, Nikita, took the surname Romanov to honor their grandfather, the father of a tsarina. Michael Romanov, Nikita’s grandson, became the first Romanov tsar (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2014). The dynasty began after the Time of Troubles, when the zemsky sobor, or the Assembly of the Land, elected a 16 year old boyar, Michael Romanov, to become the new tsar (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2014). The new tsar imposed autocratic rule and created strong alliance with foreign countries. Other notable Romanovs include Peter the Great, who made many reforms and modernized Russia. There was also Elizabeth, daughter of Peter the Great, who improved the trade and industry of Russia, and returned its economic stability. Then there was Catherine the Great who increased Russia’s borders and strengthened the country’s army and naval fleet. Another prominent Romanov was Alexander I, who was known for organizing the serfs and the nobles, and for defeating Napoleon. There was also Alexander II, who was called the Tsar Liberator, by freeing the serfs after many years of serfdom. The dynasty ended only with the execution of the royal family of Nicholas II during the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917. The last tsar, along with his wife and five children were executed by the Bolsheviks. By killing them all, it assured the new rulers of Russia that the Romanovs cannot ever reclaim the throne again. This paper aims to analyze the events that led to the fall of the Romanov dynasty in 1917. Different political, social, and economic factors which may have contributed to the fall of the dynasty will be discussed. There will then be an analysis of all the factors presented to find out which of the causes was the most important in leading to the fall of the dynasty. CAUSES OF THE FALL OF THE DYNASTY

Long-Term Causes
Grievances of the Peasants
For more than three centuries, the tsar of Russia always had an unchallenged autocratic rule over all his people. However, in the 19th century and with the spread of industrialization and new ideas, the people started to call for a constitutional monarchy. This new request from the people was brought about by the hardship suffered by the peasants after many years of serfdom. This is why in 1861, Tsar Alexander II was forced to emancipate the serfs (Alesworth, 2007). One would think that the freedom of the serfs would bring great improvement to their lives, but what actually happened was the opposite. The emancipation just worsened the situation of the former serfs. They had to pay redemption payments and they had less of what they previously had (Alesworth, 2007). With the ongoing industrialization in the West, ideas of freedom and revolution started to seep into the borders of Russia. As industrialization started to happen to Russia too, the people became more aware of the inefficiencies of their current state of governance and began to ask for reforms and changes in their way of life. In the year 1905, a group of protesters marched to the Winter Palace to ask the Tsar for reforms. They were met with armed forces who shot at the protesters. What started to be a peaceful demonstration turned into a bloody disaster. This event, known as the Bloody Sunday, led to the Revolution of 1905. By then, the people were very...

References: A.A. & K.D. (1999). The Romanovs together in life and death. Retrieved on March 25, 2014 from http://www.richeast.org/htwm/roman/romanov.htm
Alesworth, A. (2007). Why did the Romanov dynasty fall? Retrieved on March 25, 2014 from http://z3.invisionfree.com/KGS_History_Dept/ar/t29.htm
Encyclopedia Britannica. (2014). Time of Troubles. Retrieved on January 29, 2014 from http://global.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/606795/Time-of-Troubles
Encyclopedia Britannica. (2014). The Romanov dynasty. Retrieved on January 29, 2014 from http://global.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/508643/Romanov-Dynasty
Perrie, M. (1998). The fall of the Romanovs. Retrieved on March 25, 2014 from http://www.users.globalnet.co.uk/~semp/romanov.htm
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