International Business Innovation, IPRs, Tech. Transfer and Diffusion Universidade do Minho
2011-2012 Teacher: Ana Paula Faria (firstname.lastname@example.org).
Student: Rosario D’Auria Erasmus student: E4407 Email: email@example.com Phone: 927672892
Assignment #2 – HIGH TECH INDUSTRIES AND KNOWLEDGE INTESIVE SERVICES Due date: 17-NOV-2011
It doesn’t exist a single authoritative methodology to define high-tech industries. The organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) identifies high-tech industries based on a comparison industry R&D intensities, a calculation dividing industry R&D expenditures by industry sales. Industries identified as high-tech are: aerospace, pharmaceuticals, computers and office machinery, communication equipment, and scientific (medical, precision, and optical) instruments. They are considered as science-based industries that manufacture products while performing above-average levels of R&D. In much policy analysis it is common to use the terms 'high-technology' or 'knowledge intensive industries' in a somewhat loose way, as though in fact they are both meaningful and interchangeable terms. But we ought to remember that the term ‘high technology’ is a rather recent invention, and that its meaning is far from clear. The standard approach in this area rests on a classification developed by the OECD in the mid-1980s. The OECD distinguished between industries in terms of R&D intensities, with those (such as ICT or pharmaceuticals) spending more than 4% of turnover being classified as high-technology, those spending between 1% and 4% of turnover (such as vehicles or chemicals) being classified as medium-tech, and those spending less than 1% (such as textiles or food) as 'low tech'. High-tech can be defined according to three different approaches: the sector approach looks at the high-tech manufacturing sector, medium high-tech manufacturing sector, and high-tech knowledge-intensive service sector, focusing on...
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