Hierarchy of Effects

Topics: Advertising, Hierarchy Pages: 4 (1105 words) Published: September 16, 2013

Cong Li, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC
American Academy of Advertising Conference Proceedings.2007, p82-90. 9p.


While online advertising has grown dramatically during the past several years, attracting Web users’ attention and persuading them remains one of the critical issues for advertisers (Yoo, Kim, & Stout, 2004). With the increased user control and online advertising clutter, the competition for gaining user attention on the Web has intensified (Diao&Sundar, 2004).

Advertisers have responded to this challenge by creating more types of ads online.Today, a variety of advertising formats co-exist on the Internet. Six most recognized formats are banners, pop-ups,floating ads, skyscrapers, large rectangles, and interstitials (Burns & Lutz, 2006). Although each online ad format possesses distinctive features, they could generally be categorized into two groups, using the level of exposure condition as the criterion.

1. One group, unforced-exposure ads (LOS QUE APARECEN NO A LA FUERZA), includes banner ads, skyscrapers, and large rectangles. These types of ads generally are displayed on the peripheries of a Web page, and they do not interrupt Web users’ surfing. Therefore, Web users’ exposure to such ads is mostly incidental, and not forced. 2. However, the other group of ads, such as pop-up ads, floating ads, and interstitials, always appear automatically and unexpectedly, interrupting Web users’ planned activities and forcing them to notice unrequested commercial messages. These types of ads could be considered forced-exposure ads. (LOS QUE APARECEN A LA FUERZA)

This paper identifies the different mechanisms underneath these two groups of ads and discusses their advertising effectiveness. Banner ads and pop-up ads are chosen to represent unforced-exposure ads and forced-exposure ads respectively because these two...
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