Topics: Vegetarianism, Environmental engineering, Lacto vegetarianism Pages: 9 (2128 words) Published: February 27, 2013
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Std: XI

Subject: ENGLISH

Time: 3 Hours

Maximum Marks: 100

________________________________________________________________ General Instructions:
The paper is divided into five Sections – A, B C,D and E. All the sections are compulsory.

Separate instructions are given with each section and questions, wherever necessary. Read these instructions carefully and follow them faithfully.


Do not exceed the prescribed word limit while answering the questions. Marks will be deducted if this limit is crossed.


Please write down the serial number of the question in the answer script before attempting it.

________________________________________________________________ SECTION A - READING (20 Marks)

1. Read the following passage carefully.

(12 Marks)


(1) Gone are the days when there used to be just civil, mechanical or electrical engineering. Rapid industrialisation brought a large number of specialisations in engineering which have been derived from the above three basic engineering courses. In fact, when the engineering courses were introduced, there was just one branch in engineering called ‘Engineering’ or ‘Applied Science.’

(2) Thereafter, it was divided into three basic engineering courses which reigned supreme for a long time until a few decades ago. Now, they are poor cousins to the several new branches. You now have electronics, telecommunications, mining, metallurgy, ceramics, computers, chemical, architecture, textile, aeronautical, leather technology, bio-medical, bio-technology, naval engineering, agricultural engineering and a host of other branches to choose from. All these are production oriented.

(3) During recent years, the exploitation of Nature has been so rapid as never before. Industrialisation is taking place at such a rapid pace and the population is increasing so fast that the environment finds it difficult to cope with their wastes. These wastes, if thrown into the environment in their polluted form are capable of producing all kinds of ill effects. Therefore, it is necessary to treat these waste materials adequately before releasing them into the environment. (4) All this calls for an altogether different specialisation in engineering — Environmental Engineering— the only branch which is not production-oriented. It does not exploit Nature, but deals with ‘ways to protect the environment’. Although it is a new branch of engineering, its origin dates back to the advent of civil engineering itself. It used to form a part of civil engineering courses and is still taught under it in the undergraduate classes. In some institutes, it is also taught under chemical engineering course. It used to be known as ‘municipal engineering’ to begin with, then it was rechristened as ‘sanitary engineering’ and until recently it used to be known as ‘public health engineering’. (5) It used to deal mainly with water treatment methods, supply of potable water, disposal of human excreta, design of septic tanks and sewer lines. But now, its field has widened. The course now includes topics on air pollution and noise pollution. In some institutions, studies on wasteland, forestry, wildlife, environmental and architectural designs are also taken up.

(6) Being a new field which is expanding at a rapid rate, there will be no dearth of jobs.

Answer the following questions according to the understanding of the passage.

1.Why does the environment now find it difficult to cope with the problem of waste?
2. What makes Environmental Engineering a lucrative choice for an engineering student?
3. What does Environmental Engineering deal with?
4. Why do you think new branches of...
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