The Gaza–Israel conflict, taking place in the region of the Gaza Strip and southern Israel, is a part of the long-termIsraeli–Palestinian conflict. It began in the summer of 2006 and is ongoing. Palestinian militant actions escalated in the Gaza Strip following the overwhelming election to government of the Islamic political party Hamas in 2005 and 2006. The conflict escalated with the split of the Palestinian Authority to Fatah government in the West Bank and the Hamas Government in Gaza and the following violent ousting of Fatah. Palestinian rocket attacks on Israel and Israel's blockade of Gaza have exacerbated the conflict. Under its 2005 disengagement plan, Israel retained exclusive control over Gaza's airspace and territorial waters, continued to patrol and monitor the external land perimeter of the Gaza Strip, with the exception of its southernmost border (where Egypt retained control of the border and border crossings were supervised by European monitors) and continued to monitor and blockade Gaza's coastline. Israel largely provides for and controls Gaza's water supply, electricity and communications infrastructure. According to Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International, Israel remains anoccupying power under international law. The United Nations has stated that under resolutions of both the General Assembly and the Security Council it regards Gaza to be part of the "Occupied Palestinian Territories". Meanwhile, theFatah government in the West Bank, officially recognized as the sole representative of the State of Palestine refers to the Gaza Strip as part of the Palestinian State and doesn't recognize the Hamas government, hence avoiding interfering in the conflict. Contents
1.1 Israel–Gaza barrier
1.2 Second Intifada
1.3 Israel's unilateral disengagement
1.4 Ascendancy of Hamas
2.3 Fatah-Hamas conflict and Israeli blockade
2.4 Operation "Hot Winter"
2.5 Six-month ceasefire
2.6 Gaza War
2.7 March 2010 events
2.8 2011 cross-border attack
2.9 Operation "Returning Echo"
2.10 Operation "Pillar of Defense"
3 International response
3.1 Other responses
4 See also
6 External links
Main article: Israel–Gaza barrier
The Gaza Strip has been separated from Israel by the Israel–Gaza barrier since 1996, which has helped reduce infiltration into Israel. Since the beginning of the Second Intifada, Gazans are no longer permitted to enter Israel for work purposes. Special permits to enter Israel for medical purposes have also been greatly reduced, which has made travel for Palestinians a difficult task. Daniel Schueftan, in his 1999 book, Disengagement: Israel and the Palestinian Entity ("The Need for Separation: Israel and the Palestinian Authority") reviews new and existing arguments underlying different separation stances, in order to make the case for separation from the Palestinians, beginning with those in the West Bank and Gaza. Schueftan favors the "hard separation" stances of politicians like Yitzhak Rabin and Ehud Barak. Yitzhak Rabin was the first to propose the creation of a physical barrier between the Israeli and Palestinian populations in 1992, and by 1994, construction on the first barrier – the Israel–Gaza barrier – had begun; it is actually a wire fence equipped with sensors. Following an attack on Bet Lid, near the city of Netanya, Rabin specified the objectives behind the undertaking, stating that: This path must lead to a separation, though not according to the borders prior to 1967. We want to reach a separation between us and them. We do not want majority of the Jewish residents of the state of Israel, 98% of whom...
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