Review of Related Literature
Felicitas Artiaga-Soriano in her article “Irrational Fears” considered Fear and Anxiety as not always adoptive; that they can occur even in the absence of realistic threats and that one’s responses to threats can be out of proportion to the actual danger.
Soriano also emphasized the difference between fear and anxiety, that fear is an alarm response triggered when there is actual danger while anxiety, on the other hand is future-oriented, wherein one anticipates the possibility of a threat impending danger.
According to her, Genetic factors are also considered as causes of phobia though not seen as the sole cause. For, family members often share learning experiences and other environmental factors that patient with social phobia describe their parents as having: 1) discouraged them from socializing; 2) placed undue importance on the opinions of others; 3) used shame as a mans of discipline.
Rachman’s Pathways to Fear Development says that there are three pathways involved in developing fear. First; direct conditioning, which typically involves the experience of being hurt or frightened by the phobic situation or object. Second: vicarious acquisition, which involves witnessing, some traumatic events or someone behave fearfully in the presence of the phobic situation or object. And lastly, informational and instructional pathways (an individual may develop flying phobia as a result of news about of plane crashes.
According to General Psychology Classes of Emotional Reactions by Josefina Gaerlan et al. Fear is one of the most troublesome of all emotional ractions. The prominent feelings associated with fear are bodily sensations due to the activation of the autonomic nervous system. Common manifestations of fear are pounding of the heart, sinking feeling in the stomach, trembling and shaking, weakness, faintness and tensions.
They stated that the basic characteristic of the fear situation is that the